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Lecture 12

PSYCH 211 - Language (Lecture 12-15)

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University of Waterloo
Mathieu Le Corre

Lecture 12THFEB252013LANGUAGEWhat kids know about their language by about age 3 Knows quite a lot How do they learn itIn being around their parents and noisemaking people they acquire enough language to be able to describe an episode of Star Wars baby in videoSo what is it like to be in that situationUs listening to this is what it feels like to be a baby with a language bombarding themStarting pointhearing a continuous stream of noiseWhat problems do children and babies have to solve to go from hearing a continuous stream of noise to describing an episode of Star Wars What do they need to learnoDetermining word boundariesoWord meanings SemanticsoThe way tone we say thingspragmatics what autisticshave a hard time withoChanges in sound make different words with different meaningsoGrammaroSyntaxWhat would you need to learn to understand guy in video WORDSMeanings what each word refers toIn Spanish the meaning of almohada is pillowHow do you know what the words areSegmentation where does one word end and the next beginoFew silences between words and some within wordsoSo speech stream is often ambiguous Phonology What changes in sound count as new wordsoIn English changing I to r makes a different word lake vs rake Not in japaneseoIn Xhosa adding a click can make a different word Not in EnglishoIn all languages change from child voice to adult voice dont make a differenceWords are not enoughSyntax how words combine to express relations between meaningsoIn English order mattersJennifer loves Brad but does Brad love JenniferoIn Chinese use different orderZhenni Bran xihuan Jennifer loves BradoIn Turkish word form matters but order doesntJennifer Bradi severBradi Jennifer severIn all languages syntax specifies who is the lover and who is lovedPhonology The ProblemPhoneme smallest piece of wordif change piece phonememake new wordPat cat batPat pit petPat pack passCant start learning words unless know which sound changes make different wordsoEX Is the change from pat to cat enough to make a new word Or do you need a big change like patto codeHow do babies learn thisThe sounds of language BasicsTo create different phonemes vary how interrupt airflowoTongue placement ga vs daoTongue vs lips ta vs paoNose vibration ta vs naoVowels mouth shapeoVoice onset time ba vs paVoice Onset TimeSound is caused by air vibrationsHuman vocal apparatus can make air vibrate byoVibrating vocal chords in throatoLetting air flow through mouthVocal chords and mouth are separate vibration instrumentsVOTtiming of vocal chords relative to opening of mouthoNegativevocal chords before mouth opensoPositivevocal chords after mouth opensCan make sound with vocal chords while mouth closehummingAir vibrates because vocal chords vibrateCan make sound by letting air flow through mouth without making vocal chords vibratewhispering or pop in p sound air vibrates because mouth opens to let air flowMake ba by combining vocal chords and mouthMake pa by combining vocal chords and mouthpa TIMEmin20 to 30 msecba TIMEba Vibration cause by vocal chords happens a TINY pa Vibration caused by vocal chords initial pop inBIT AFTER or BEFORE vibration caused by mouthpa happens AFTER vibration caused by mouthVOT20 msHow to build ba and pa SUMMARYAlthough having a PEAR for lunch is wildly different from having a BEAR for lunch only difference between the two words isoRelative timing of mouth vibration vs vocal chords vibrationFor ba mouth and vocal chords cause vibrations at the same timeFor pa mouth causes vibrations before the vocal chords
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