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Friendship and Attraction

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Hilary B Bergsieker

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Friendship and Attraction Attractiveness - Facial Attractiveness o Averageness – faces representing average value of population o Symmetry – right/left symmetric faces o Sexual dimorphism – estrogen-linked/testosterone-lined features o Similarity to self – implicit egotism - Attractive Faces: Only Average o Proposed faces representing average value of a population are viewed as attractive  If so, an average composite face should be more attractive than the individual faces in it o Tested theory by averaging faces o IV: number of faces:  Original face /2/4/8/16/32 o Composite faces are more attractive than the average attractiveness of the faces that comprise them o Why does averageness matter?  Average faces are typical ones  Prototypical faces ease classification as a face - Attractive Faces: Symmetric o Proposed symmetrical faces are viewed as more attractive than less symmetrical faces o ½ male, ½ female faces o IV: symmetry of faces  Perfect, high, original, low o Symmetry is attractive o People are sensitive to subtle differences in facial symmetry o Why does symmetry matter?  Only high-quality individuals can maintain symmetric development in the face of environmental and genetic stressors - Attractive Faces: Sexual Dimorphism o Feminine characteristics  Wide, bright eyes  Small, slender nose,  Thin brows o Estrogen-dependent o Signs of youthfulness and fertility o Male characteristics  Large jaw  Square face  Strong nose  Deep-set eyes o Testosterone-dependent o Signs of dominance and immunocompetence - Attractive Faces: Sexual Dimorphism o Proposed hat enhancing the sexual dimorphism of faces should increase their attractiveness because…  It’s a sign of youthfulness and fertility in females  It’s a sign of dominance and immunocompetence in males o 3 levels of sexual dimorphism  Feminized/average/masculinized o For females, the feminized versions were rated most attractive for both Caucasian and Japanese faces o For males however, things did not go as expected… o Masculinity/femininity affect personality impressions o Researchers found that  As masculinity increased, perceived relationship-investment traits: decreased in  Warmth, emotionality, honesty, cooperativeness, quality as a parent o Feminized female faces preferred (cue youth and fertility) o Feminized male faces also preferred (cue positive relationship and paternal investment characteristics) - Attractive Faces: Implicit Egotism? o Positive attitudes toward self spill over to affect attitudes towards things associated with oneself  Name-letter effect: we prefer letters in own names  Birthday-numeral effect: we prefer #s in own birthdays  Consumer preferences: Ps more likely to pick a tea matching own name (ie. Sandra chooses tea named Sanya over Larin but Larry chooses Larin over Sanya)  2000 presidential election: those whose last initial was “B” more likely to contribute $ to Bush, those who last initial was “G” more likely to contribute to Gore - Attractive Faces: Similarity to Self o Same-sex others’ faces rated as more attractive and trustworthy when morphed with own face  Ps trusted study partner more when partn
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