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Social Judgment - January 14th.docx

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Hilary B Bergsieker

PSYCH253 – January 14 2013 th Ideal Scientific - Expends effort, caution to reach correct conclusion - Seeks out evidence that could falsify a hypothesis - Attentive to evidence that violates own hypothesis - Does not act to create the very phenomenon they are studying Vs. Intuitive Thinking - Rushes to judgment by relying on heuristics - Does not seek out / ignores falsifying information - Is biased to see patterns matching own expectations - Act in ways that brings out/create the information they believe exists Intuition Heuristics Inferential Heuristics - Automatic systems that are very natural and quick and reliable - Easy, intuitive judgments that occur in our minds without deliberation o Liking, disliking, similarity, perceptual/cognitive fluency - Other judgments are not automated and demand more extensive attention and resource-dependent deliberation o Probability; scope/importance - Get into trouble when we substitute hard thing with easy thing o Attribute substitution” when judgments tax information – processing. Capacities, people often substitute an answer to a related judgment that is easier and more intuitive Feeling Heuristic - Our reliance on the feelings that we experience as we think about a topic to judge importance, risk or satisfaction - Potential problems with feelings o Less attuned to abstract than concrete stimuli o Contaminated by irrelevant experiences (ie. Weather, Monday, and other external factors) that may affect how we feel Representative Heuristic - Our tendency to classify something according to how similar it seems to a typical case - How well something matches prototype instead of diagnostic/factual cues - Potential problem o Involves base rate neglect o Not all category/classification members are typical o Leads to conjunction fallacy Availability Heuristic - how easy something comes to mind - Potential problem o Vivid instances come more readily to mind o Statistical, factual info often is not vivid o Leads to probability neglect (being afraid of flying in airplane, and not driving but more likely to die driving a car) Schemas - An organized set of knowledge about a stimulus o Attributes of concept/stimulus o Relations among attributes o Specific examples - Functions o Filling in gaps  Guest lecture in economics class  Two different bios between two groups (a very warm person and a rather cold person)  After 20 minute lecture, students rated “warm” (vs. “cold”) lecturer more considerate, sociable, humorous, good nature, informal, humane  Only listened to 20 minute but used schema of previous knowledge of what a warm or a cold person is like to rate the lecturer o Shape attention and memory  Participants saw video of woman and man eating dinner as intro  Librarian vs. waitress (one more likely to burgers, one more likely to like roast beef, one more likely to play guitar or piano, one is more affectionate with husband, one is not…)
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