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Lecture 12

PSYCH 253 Lecture 12 Altruism.rtf

4 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 253
Professor
Patrick Watson

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Lecture 12 Altruism: Helping Others March 3, 2014 Altruism - Defining terms o Prosocial behavior  Helping that benefits another person  May also benefit self and be done for that reason o Altruism – helping with no personal benefit  Helping in response to another’s need  Done regardless of benefit to self - Basic motives (WHY) o Social-exchange theory – helping helps us  Emphasizes rewards for helping  Evolutionary theory also stresses genetic reward  Rewards  Increase likelihood of return help  Relieve personal distress  Gain social approval from others  Costs  Put self in physical danger  Consumes time  Requires energy  Altruism does not exist set o Empathy-altruism hypothesis  Based on genuine concern for other’ well-being  When we feel empathy for another, will help purely for altruistic reasons, regardless of our gain  Empathy entails taking perspectives of others, thus experiencing events and emotions of others  Helping: Empathy & Costs – participants were told about Carol who was in a car accident and had gotten behind in class.  IV #1: Empathy o ½ high: take her perspective o ½ low: be objective  IV #2: Cost of not helping o ½ low: won’t see her in class o ½ high: will see her in class  DV: Would you help her catch up with her work? The participants who felt the person’s pain and take her perspective were twice as likely to help as those who were objective. - Bystander non-intervention (WHEN) o Situational ambiguity  Informational influence: we watch behavior of others to help us define ambiguous situations  Pluralistic ignorance: amid passive bystanders, each person assumes others are not acting because they see situation as non-emergency  “No one else seems to be doing anything so I guess it’s not an emergency”  Anti-staring norms also interfere  Some Study – smoke poured into a room as participants completed a survey  IV: presence of others o Participant alone o Participant an
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