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Lecture 13

PSYCH 253 Lecture 13 Aggression
PSYCH 253 Lecture 13 Aggression

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University of Waterloo
Patrick Watson

Lecture 13 Aggression: Hurting Others March 5, 2014 - Causes of aggression o Aggression:  intentional action aimed at doing harm or causing harm to another person who wants to avoid harm  Hostile (emotional) aggression: stem from feelings of anger, aimed at inflicting pain  Instrumental aggression: a means to some goal other than causing pain (example – terrorist)  Relational aggression – behavior intended to damage another person’s peer relationships and social status. Its indirect and psychological harm. o Gender and Types of Aggression – observed study of British schoolchildren. Boys were more likely to use physical aggression, girls were more likely to use indirect aggression and both boys & girls used a high degree of verbal aggression, with boys being slightly higher. o Murder Rates in Different Countries – the United States has a MUCH higher murder rate than other countries. o Why are people so aggressive? Evolutionary Theories:  Darwin – select for aggression  Freud – Death vs. life instinct o Social learning theory – we learn from others in our social environment.  Bobo Doll – IV: Adult’s behavior  Aggressive model  Nonaggressive model (ex: playing with it)  Control condition (doing nothing with it)  Appealing toys withheld  New toys available – aggressive and nonaggressive  DV: Aggression to doll  The children very closely copied the adult’s behavior o Frustration-aggression theory – frustration leads to aggression  Moderators (factors that influence link)  Individual’s closeness to achieving goal  Anticipated satisfaction from achieving goal  Cues in the environment  Weapons Effect: Increased Aggression  IV: Anger – participants were made angry vs. not angry  IV: Cues – left in a room with gun vs. badminton racket vs. nothing  Participants allowed to administer “shocks” to other participants  DV: Angry participants gave more shocks to other when gun was present than with racket or no object  Weapons Effect: Priming Aggression  Identifying a weapon makes aggression-related thoughts accessible o Weapon primes – word
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