Lecture 13 Aggression: Hurting Others March 5, 2014
- Causes of aggression
intentional action aimed at doing harm or causing harm to another
person who wants to avoid harm
Hostile (emotional) aggression: stem from feelings of anger, aimed at
Instrumental aggression: a means to some goal other than causing pain
(example – terrorist)
Relational aggression – behavior intended to damage another person’s
peer relationships and social status. Its indirect and psychological harm.
o Gender and Types of Aggression – observed study of British schoolchildren.
Boys were more likely to use physical aggression, girls were more likely to use
indirect aggression and both boys & girls used a high degree of verbal
aggression, with boys being slightly higher.
o Murder Rates in Different Countries – the United States has a MUCH higher
murder rate than other countries.
o Why are people so aggressive? Evolutionary Theories:
Darwin – select for aggression
Freud – Death vs. life instinct
o Social learning theory – we learn from others in our social environment.
Bobo Doll – IV: Adult’s behavior
Nonaggressive model (ex: playing with it)
Control condition (doing nothing with it)
Appealing toys withheld
New toys available – aggressive and nonaggressive
DV: Aggression to doll
The children very closely copied the adult’s behavior o Frustration-aggression theory – frustration leads to aggression
Moderators (factors that influence link)
Individual’s closeness to achieving goal
Anticipated satisfaction from achieving goal
Cues in the environment
Weapons Effect: Increased Aggression
IV: Anger – participants were made angry vs. not angry
IV: Cues – left in a room with gun vs. badminton racket vs. nothing
Participants allowed to administer “shocks” to other participants
DV: Angry participants gave more shocks to other when gun was
present than with racket or no object
Weapons Effect: Priming Aggression
Identifying a weapon makes aggression-related thoughts
o Weapon primes – word