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Lecture 2

Psych 257 - lecture 2 -011012.docx

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University of Waterloo
Uzma Rehman

Psych 257 – lecture 2 Chapter 2: An Integrative Approach to Psychopathology UNI-DIMENSIONAL VERSUS MULTIDIMENSIONAL APPROACHES TO PSYCHOPATHOLOGY Multidimensional Models of Abnormal Behaviour  Biological factors - genetics, physiology, neurobiology  Learning factors - conditioning, modeling  Emotional factors  Cognitive factors  Social factors  Cultural factors Generic Contributions to Psychopathology  Available data suggest that genetic factors contribute to almost all psychological disorders but account for less than half of this explanation – this number is a really rough estimation because different disorders have higher heritable factors such as schizophrenia while others have low heritable factors such as phobias and eating disorders.  Most disorders are influenced by multiple genes, not caused by a single gene. You’re not going to find one gene in one disorder - exception is Down syndrome.  Important to focus on the interaction between genetic and environmental influences PSYCHOLOGY AND THE NATURE VS NURTURE DEBATE The Interaction of Genetic and Environmental Effects  Eric Kandel and gene-environment interactions - Process of learning affects more than behavior - Environment may turn on certain genes - Brain and its functions are subject to change depending on the environment  The Diathesis-Stress Model - Individuals inherit the tendencies to express certain traits or behaviors which may be activated under conditions of stress - Inherited tendency = diathesis or vulnerability– which is a condition that makes a person susceptible to developing a disorder - When the right event comes (i.e., a stressor) the disorder develops  Reciprocal Gene-Environment Model - Genes play an important role in determining stress to individuals - E.g.: a person who has genetic vulnerability to develop a certain disorder such as blood injury injection phobia may also have impulsiveness which might more likely get him involved in accidents because of his tendency on rushing in to things. - Possibly, genes contribute on how we create our own environment - Genes influence inherited personality traits such as impulsiveness that cause people to enter dangerous situations  Non-Genomic Inheritance of Behaviour - Genes are not the whole story - Genetic influences are a lot less powerful than what is usually thought of - The environment can still hold or mold the biological interactions that shape who we are The Diathesis-Stress Model – Evidence  Caspi et. al. 2003  A study conducted in New Zealand with 800 samples. They’ve followed individuals in 3 years.  The Rs wanted to show how genetics and environmental factors interact.  Ps drew blood. Looked for a vulnerability of particular genetic thing, presence of a serotonin inhibitor.  LL alleles – cope better with stress; SS alleles – cope less with stress  Individuals have s/s with maltreatment experiences were more likely to be depressed twice than people with LL alleles Evidence for the Reciprocal Gene- Environment Model  Genetic influences may increase the probability that an individual will experience stressful life events  A study by Kerry Jang and his colleagues: - Only environmental factors influence non-assaultive traumas like motor accidents - Both genetic and environmental factors influence assaulted traumas such as robbery NEURAL PLASTICITY AND THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PSYCHOPATHOLOGY DOCUMENTARY:  OCD – can often be treated by understanding  When we worry, a part of our brain detects the mistake and the anterior** makes you anxious until it was corrected and finally the caudate  Steps: 1. Step back and realize that his experience is not a dangerous attack of germs but a dangerous attack of OCD; Step 2: Reattribute the fear for what your brain is doing; Step 3: Destruct yourself –whenever something is bothering you, do something different; Step 4: when you realize your OCD, you think that it’s not you, it’s OCD and you don’t have to do it over again.  Mindfulness – an effective therapy for OCD PART 2: PTSD  Definition*  Normally functioning neural system experience a shocking event which causes a change on their system  Trauma can easily alter the brain. One is changed by experience.  Brain is overwhelmed during a trauma and memories were improperly filled (such memories were repeated)  Treatment*  Therapy includes reading the written traumatic experience over again after every session. PART 3: SCHIZOPHRENIA  Positive symptoms: delusions, hallucinations  Negative symptoms: apathy  Cognitive deficits: memory, thought organizations were impaired The Field of Neuroscience: Implications for Psychopathology
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