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Lecture

CHAPTER 7 PSYCH 257

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 257
Professor
Uzma Rehman
Semester
Winter

Description
CHAPTER 7 – MOOD DISORDERS MAJOR DEPRESSIVE EPISODE A. During the same 2-week period, five or more of the following symptoms including either 1 or 2 have been present (must be a change in functioning) 1. Depressed mood most of the day, nearly everyday 2. Diminished interest or pleasure in all, or almost all, activities 3. Significant changes in appetite and/or weight 4. Significant changes in sleep patterns 5. Psychomotor retardation or agitation 6. Fatigue or loss of energy 7. Feelings of worthlessness or inappropriate guilt 8. Diminished ability to concentrate or make decisions 9. Recurrent thoughts or death or suicide *Challenge for depressed individuals: it’s the illness to be blame not yourself. It’s the illness that makes you nonsense, not yourself. DEPRESSION SYMPTOMS  Affective - sadness, unhappiness, apathy, brooding  Cognitive - pessimism, guilt, decreased concentration, interest, and motivation, suicidal thoughts  Behavioral - low energy, lack of self-care, crying, psychomotor retardation, agitation  Physiological - appetite and sleep change, loss of sex drive *When major depressive disorder comes with mania or hypomanina, it is probably bipolar disorder not MDD. *Having 1 episode, there will be a 50% of having another episode; 2 episodes – 70% chance of another Depression; Epoisode 3 – 90% of episodes *Why depression is recurrent? - Hypothesis 1: the stressful life event happening in the subsequent episodes are different and less severe. As the number of episode increases, it takes the patient to get depress less and less. DYSTHYMIA A. Depressed mood most of the day, more days than not, for at least 2 years B. Presence, while depressed, of 2 (or more) of the following: 1. Poor appetite or overeating 2. Insomnia or hypersomnia 3. Low energy or fatigue 4. Low self-esteem 5. Poor concentration or difficulty making decisions 6. Feelings of hopelessness C. During the 2-year period, the person has never been without the symptoms for more than 2 months at a time *check slides for MAJOR DEPRESSION AND DYSTHIMIA DIFFERENCES BIPOLAR DISORDERS  Bipolar I – presence of at least one manic episode – usually also Major Depression history  Bipolar II – presence of Major Depression history and hypomania, no mania history  Cyclothymia – presence of hypomania and depression that does not reach Major Depression levels, must have symptoms for two years or more *most types of mania/manic episodes, people are having fun with it MANIC EPISODE (BUILDING BLOCK) A. Distinct period of abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood, lasting at least 1 week B. During the mood disturbance, 3 or more of the following symptoms have persisted (4 or more if the mood is only irritable) 1. Inflated self-esteem or grandiosity 2. Decreased need for sleep 3. More talkative than usual, or pressure to keep talking 4. Racing thoughts (“flight of ideas”) 5. Distractibility 6. Increase in goal-directed activity 7. Excessive involvement in pleasurable activities that have the potential for negative consequences MANIC SYMPTOMS  Affective - elation, grandiosity, irritability  Cognitive - flighty and pressured thoughts, decreased focus, attention, and judgment  Behavioral - overactive, speech difficult to understand, talkative  Physiological - decreased need for sleep, highly active, increased interest in sex HYPOMANIC EPISODE (building block) A. Distinct period of persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood lasting at least 4 days B. During the mood disturbance, 3 (or more) of the following symptoms have been present (4 or more if mood is only irritable) 1. Inflated self-esteem or grandiosity 2. Decreased need for sleep 3. More talkative than usual, or pressure to keep talking 4. Racing thoughts (“flight of ideas”) 5. Distractibility 6. Increase in goal-directed activity 7. Excessive involvement in pleasurable activities that have the potential for negative consequences *BIPOLAR I DISORDER:  One or more manic episodes OR Major depressive episodes + Manic episodes *Bipolar ii DISORDER  Presence or history of both Major depressive episode and Hypomanic episode *FAMILIAL AND GENETIC INFLUENCES  Family Studies o Rate of mood disorders is high in relatives of probands o Family studies – disadvantage: families have the same environmental and social factors  Twin Studies – comparison of identical and fraternal twins o Concordance rates for mood disorders are high in identical twins o Se
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