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PSYCH 257 (141)

Developmental Disorders

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Allison Kelly

LECTURE 15:D EVELOPMENTAL D ISORDERS Todays Questions 1. Should we be diagnosing and medicating ADHD as much as we are? 2. What are the best possible outcomes for individuals living with mental retardation? 3. Are there advantages that come with having autism? Outline  Intro to developmental psychopathology  Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)  Mental Retardation  Pervasive Developmental Disorders o Autism o Asperger’s Intro to Developmental Psychopathology  The study of how disorders arise and change with time  DSM-IV-TR developmental disorders o Disorders usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence  Context and role of psychologists o Parent or teacher notices issue with development, send child to pediatrition, then if they can’t figure it out, child is sent to psychologist. DSM-IV-TR  Mental Retardation  Learning Disorders  Motor Skills Disorder  Communication Disorders  Pervasive Developmental Disorders  Attention-Deficit and Disruptive Behaviour Disorders  Feeding and Eating Disorders of Infancy or Early Childhood  Tic Disorders  Elimination Disorders  Other Disorders of Infancy, Childhood or Adolescence 1 Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Overview  Two clusters of symptoms (at least one is required: must have 6 symptoms) o Inattention o Hyperactivity or impulsivity  Three types of ADHD (Symptoms must occur before age 7, and impairment in 2 settings) o Predominantly inattentive o Predominantly hyperactive o Combined Possible Areas of impairment in ADHD Epidemiology  4-12% of children aged 6-12 years o Boys outnumber girls 3:1  Symptom trajectory over lifespan o Problems in adolescence o Problems in adulthood Is ADHD on the Rise?  2010 study of 842,830 health records of children 5-11 years in California  New ADHD diagnoses since 2001 o Across children o In African-American girls  Risk went up 9% o In higher-income families  More diagnoses in high income families 2 Comorbidity in Children In Adults Causes  Genetics o Parent: 50-60% chance o If member in family has ADHD you are more likely to have a disorder that is comorbid with ADHD  Brain areas  Toxins o Certain food additives: not a lot of systematic research  Maternal smoking o If your mother smoked while pregnant: 3x as high a risk compared to not smoking  Psychosocial factors o Might affect severity of symptoms but does not cause disorder  Evolutionary Factors o Hunter vs. farmer hypothesis  Hunter gatherers had to act like ADHD, maybe they just didn’t evolve Assessment  Key components for children o Parent interview o Standardized rating scales completed by parent and teachers  How defiant they are, how often they forget things, outbursts o School information o Child diagnostic interview 3 o Physical evaluation Treatment  Biological treatments o Stimulants, esp. Ritalin (Methylphenidate)  Behavioural treatments o Not sufficient on their own – reinforce Mental Retardation (Intellectual Disability) Overview DSM 1. Significantly sub-average general intellectual functioning o Measured with IQ test 2. Significant li
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