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Lecture 13

PSYCH 257 Lecture 13: Chapter 12,13,14

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Carolyn Wilson

Chapter 12: schizophrenia spectrum disorders Symptoms of schizophrenia disorder: • Positive symptoms: symptoms of schizophrenia that involve unusual thoughts or delusions, hallucinations, disordered thinking and bizzare behavior • Delusions: false personal beliefs that are kept despite disconfirming evidence or logic • Delusions of grandeur: believing that you’re someone famous, delusions of control: that someone else might be controlling you or how u act, delusions of though broadcasting: individuals may believe that others can hear their thoughts • Persecution: others are plotting against, mistreating or even trying to kill them • Reference: may believe that they are center of attention • Though withdrawal: someone might be removing thoughts from their head • Paranoid ideation: they are usually suspicious about the actions or motives of other people • Capgras delusion: is a delusion in which people believe there is a double replacing family members • Cognitive symptoms: cognitive slippage: involves shifting from topic to topic without meaningful connection • Catatonia: a condition marked by disturbance in motor activity • Negative symptoms: associated with an inability or decreased ability to initiate actions or speech • Avoliation: inability to persist in goal directed behavior • Alogia: lack of meaningful speech • Asociality: minimal interest in social relationships • Anhedonia: reduced ability to experience pleasure from positive events • Diminished emotional expression: reduced display of emotions, including facial expression, tone and others • Three phases of schizophrenia: • Prodromal: onset and building of scz, social withdrawal and other symptoms • Active phase: shows full blown symptoms of scz • Residual phase: the symptoms and severity decline • Endophenotypes: measurable traits that can give clues regarding gene involvement in a disorder • Dopamine hypothesis: scz may result from excess dopamine activity in certain parts of the brain • Phenothiazine: decrease severity of disordered thinking, work by reducing dopamine uptake and blocking dopamine receptors • L – dopa: used to treat symptoms of parkinsons disease, works by providing more dopamine activity. This can in turn produce scz type symptoms • Amphetamines: stimulants that increase the availability of dopamine and neonephrines • Concordance rate: the likelihood that both members of a twin pair show the same characteristics • Restricted affect: severly diminished or limited emotional responsiveness • First generation antipsychotics: the first medication given to patients, they have a lot of side effects • Atypical antipsychotics: newer medications that had less side effects • Brief psychotic disorder: at least one symptoms or one delusion and lasting more than a week but less than a month • Schizophreniform disorder: requires the presence of two or more symptoms: delusions, hallucinations and motor disturbances, must last between 1 – 6 months • Schizoaffective disorder: a disorder that has symptoms of scz and bipolar, major depression or manic episodes. A mix of two things Chapter 13: Neurocognitive Types of neurocognitive disorders: • Brain pathology: a dysfunction disease of the brain • Major neurocognitive disorder: symptoms show major decline in one or more areas of cognitive functioning involving attention, focus, decision making and judgment • Dementia: condition involving deterioration in cognition and independent functioning • Mild neurocognitive disorder: individuals diagnosed with this disorder show a moderate decline in at least one major cognitive area • Delirium: is an acute state of confusion characterized by disorientation and impaired attention skills • Neurodegeneration: progressive brain damage due to neurochemical abnormalities and the death of brain cells • Traumatic brain injury: a physical wound or internal injury to the brain • Concussion: refers to trauma induced changes in brain functioning, typically caused by a blow to the head • Cerebral contusion: results when the brain strikes the skull with enough force to cause bruising • Cerebral laceration: open head injury in which the brain tissue is torn, pierced or ruptured • Chronic traumatic encephalopathy: a progressive degenerative condition diagnosed when autopsy reveals diffused brain damage resulting from ongoing head trauma Vascular neurocognitive disorders • Vascular neurocognitive disorders can result from one time cardio
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