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Lecture 1

PSYCH 257 Lecture 1: Final Psych Notes

18 Pages

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Carolyn Wilson

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Topic 2: Research methods *WHAT IS EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND HOW DOES IT WORK AND WHATS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CORRELATION AND WHAT CAN WE LEARN ABOUT DIFFERENT METHODS* Research methods in psych • exploratory research, explore some phenomenon without any predefined theory. • case study is a situation where one individual is dealing with something you’re interested din, and then you follow them for a long time and try and get a sense of things they might be dealing with. • they can be useful because we have people who are willing to let us study them, then we can design experiments • naturalistic observation, pictures and observing whats going on, group of people and they do not factor into the situation • theory testing, they test theories about cause effect relationships among some variables • think about testable hypothesis or prediction What is a theory • a true theory is something that is a proposed set of principles that predicts or explains an event. • two important aspects, it predicts and explains • fit numerous findings into some coherent hole • needs a data collection or supporting facts, or some evidence • AN OPINION IS NOT A THEORY Empirical research • establishing whether a theory is consistent • and testing a theory • must have potential to falsify the theory • theres no point of research if in the theory there is no way to prove it wrong Hypothesis is a testable prediction about processes that can be observed or measured good to generate multiple hypothesis research hypothesis: the result that u expect to see if the theory is true, quite specific Null hypothesis: the result u expect if the theory is not true What is not empirical research • Theory: vitamin c helps u recover from colds more quickly • Evidence: appeals to tradition?anecdotal • Problem: Confirmatory bias The scientific Method: Define problem - doing natural observations, looking at case studies, discovering a problem Observe the phenomenon - Form hypothesis - Test the hypothesis - analyze results draw conclusion explaing conclusion How we test hypothesis Correlation Research - primary goal is to establish if one variable is predicted by one or more variables. • most scientists like variables than can be manipulated • researches are measuring variables that are already possessed by the participants • predictor variable: the variable that is relevant • predicted variable: variable of interest • correlation have both a direction and magnitude • Confounds: uncontrolled additional variable that might correlate with the predictor and affect the outcome • They are also knows as the third variable problem • confounds can exist in experimental research as well • big caveat: Cause and effect, you cannot infer cause and effect Experimental research - the goal is to establish whether an evidence is caused by one or more other variables that are being identified in the experiment • indépendant variable : random assignment to different levels • often 2 levels of independent variables: the factor exists or it doesn’t • dependant variable: variable of interest • can infer cause and effect • confounds also exist in experimental research • Different designs • Within subjects - the same group of people will do multiple conditions(Different levels of independent variable) • Between subjects - different groups participating in each condition, some little individual differences, makes the design less powerful Three foundational aspects of experimental design Quality measurement • objective measurements: the measure of an entity or behaviour that within an allowed margin of error is consistent across instruments and observers. • the objectivity of the measure has to come from the person doing the measuring • variables - objects that we are measuring • constants - an object that only has one value • nominal variable: categorial variable, male or female , eye colour • ordinal variable: categorial but have meaningful relative ranks • interval variables: numbers, amounts, weight • operational definitons: statements that describe the procedure and or specific measure that are gonna be used to record observations • Reliability: measure that provides consistent and stable answers across multiple observations • inter rater reliablity- multiple observers need to be able to observe an individual doing a same behaviour and code that behaviour the same way. • validity - the degree to which an instrument actually measures, what it claims to measure Generalizability - the degree to which a set of results can be applied to other situations • large group of people • randomization - every individual in a population has an equal chance at being included in the study as a whole • ecological validity - Reducing bias • researcher and subject bias • hawthorne effect - behaviour of the person changes because they know they’re being observed • demand characteristics - inadvertent cues given by the experimenter that provide info about how participants should behave • ways to reduce bias ; • inform participants • single blind study - participants do not know the true purpose of a study, or do not know which type of treatment they are receiving Ethics • ethical issues must be addressed before the study begins • IRB - protects research participants by weighing any risks agaianst the benefits of the research • minimal stress on participants • cognitive and emotional stress - writing about upsetting or traumatic experience • obtaining informed consent • deception - given enough information to consent • need to have full consent • can stop participating without penalty • given equal opportunities • opt out anytime • withhold responses • debriefing - explain the true nature of study at the end Basics of the facebook article • Emotional Contagion: transfer of emotional states where a person experiences the same emotion as the person around them • social psychology construct • motivation of the experiment: correlational study suggests that same transfer cn occur via social networks • all work on social networks is correlational hypothesis Research hypothesis: contagion exists in social networks null hypothesis: contagion doesn’t exist, or might even have the opposite effect Neuropsychology We only use 10% of our brains • origins of the 10% myth • william james • eintstein • entire organ is active even when the body is resting • people believe this myth because they want to be able to do supernatural things Types of research • Behaviour to biology, many people use behavioural measures to figure out whats going on • EEG - electroencephalography, When does something happen in the brain • fMRI - functional magnetic resonance imaging, we get an idea of where things happen in the brain • some brain measuring techniques are interests in what goes on in then brain at a certain time and some are interested in where things are happening in the brain • animal research animal research helps to inform human research • all research has strict ethical standards just like human research • animals are used in : single feel recording studies, where researchers would perform a minor surgery and stick a small electrode in the brain and then they get an electrical reading of what is going on in a single cell. • experiments involving drugs • lesion studies, performa small surgery and you want to remove a particular brain structure or damage it, and then see what happens in certain situations. • Things we still can’t do on humans, Experiment on alcohol • binge drinking, exercise helps prevent cell death after binge drinking • Human Lesion Studies, neurological to behavioural • Broca’s area : discovered after injury, left the person unable to speak but still be able to understand what people said • Wrenches’ area : unable to understand but speak • Case Studies • similar to lesion studies • HM - removal of hippocampus • found that his memory was affected, could remember things from the past, but could not form any new memories • phineas gage - frontal lobe damage, trouble from stopping himself from cursing, he couldn’t work with other people Neural Systems • a single neuron: also called the nerve cell • the links between neurons compose the nervous system • dendrites - 200 microns • soma - 5 - 100 microns • cell body contains nucleus and cytoplasm, the purpose is to control • dendrites: reach out from the soma • axon extends from the soma, a collection of axons is called a nerve • transmission occurs from the dendrites to the axon and then to the soma • sensory neurons: attached to specialized receptors cells that can pick up external energy and then transduce the outside world into chemical and electrical change sin the nervous system. • sensory neutrons bring info into the nervous system and are called afferent neurons • motor neurons: they control muscles. they have cell bodies in the brain or spinal cord and the axon reaches out to muscles • The firing of a motor neurone causes chemical event resulting in muscle movement • move signals out of the nervous system, thus efferent neurons • interneurons: these neutrons connect to other neurons, they encompass a vast majority of neurons in the body • myelin sheath _ made by glial cells, like insulation across electrical cords. signals travel faster if its insulated (mylenated). White matter is mylenated axons and grey matter in unmilated. Resting and action potentials • at rest charge: - 70mv • a neuron at rest is negative relative to its surroundings • ion balance, the semi permeable membrane crate this charge • polarzation - how negative or positive a charge is • Action potential: the reversal of polarity that occurs when a neutron reaches the threshold of excitation (-60mv) and fires • after this the neutron returns to its resting state • refractory period: a breif period that prevents refiring for a couple of milliseconds • Strength of a stimulus: neutron always fires the same way. the neutron must fire more often in order for the stimulus to be stronger • the synaptic cleft, place between the two neurons • sending: pre synaptic neuron • receving - post synaptic neuron • the transmitter substance is kept in the buttons. • the arrival of the action potential causes the synaptic vessels to be released in the synaptic cleft. Then they are picked up by receptors. • depending on the chemical, the chemical can inhibit or excite the next neuron • after transmission, postsynaptic membrane de activates the transmitter and presynaptic membrane engages in reuptake • sympathetic system: generally activates • parasympathetic system: generally inhibits Brain and CNS • Hind brain : medulla, cerebellum • medulla: controls heart rate breathing and fundamental functions • cerebellum: controls balance and motor coordination • Midbrain: reticular formation • reticular formation: arousal, waking up and conciousness • forebrain: thalamus and hypothalamus • thalamus: relay sensory information and integrated information to different area • hypothalamus: motivation, emotion , regulation , controls and endocrine systems • cerebral hemisphere: the largest and most visible part of our brain • the folds in our brain helps to pack more surface area in • LOOK AT DIAGRAMS • frontal lobe: organizing events in time , working with information, personality, motor planing • temporal lobe: sound processing, identifying objects, language, memory • parietal lobe: integration centre, perception of touch pin and temperature, directing attention • occipital lobe: vision, colour vision, seeing motion, identifying objects, • the sensory cortex: LOOK AT DIAGRAMS Revisiting methods • EEG - measures patterns of electrical activity • Pros: convenient,flexible, in expensive, • Cons: no spatial details • ERP - event related potential • averaging of EEG signals, brain response to a particular event • PET imaging: inject glucose, determine metabolic rates in brain areas • Pros: real time activity in very specific parts of the brain • Cons: slow, very expensive, can’t be used with special populations, hard to use with kids or elderly people. • MRI: strong magnetic field affects activity of hydrogen atoms • Pros: gives detailed picture • Cons: slow, expensive, inflexible, • fMRI: function
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