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Lecture

Psych 261 chapter 5

5 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 261
Professor
Deltcho Valtchanov

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Description
Research Methods Chapter 5 Converging Methodologies *Animal Neurophysiology *Single cell recording *Ablation *Histology *Have to fins specific neurons and insert electrodes in them * Using histology – the animal brain is removed and sliced and observed in a microscope *Human Neuroimaging *Structural and Functional mapping *Reversible lesions (TMS) *Human Behaviour *Reaction time and accuracy *Eye tracking, reaction times were measured *Systems Neuroscience *Bridging the gap between cellular and cognitive neuroscience *Analysis at the level of Neural Networks *Goal is to replicate individual neurons Animal Neurophysiology *Experimental Ablation *Removal/destruction of a portion of the brain (a.k.a. – lesion study). *Radio Frequency Lesion *An alternating current of a very high frequency capable of destroying neural tissue (creates heat). *Excitotoxic Lesion (ASK DURING REVIEW) *A brain lesion produced by intracerebral injection of an excitatory amino acid (e.g., kainic acid). *Sham Lesion *A placebo procedure that duplicates all the steps of producing a lesion except actually damaging the brain. To control for the entire effect of the experimental lesion on the animal (repeats the lesion without actually inflicting the lesion it self) *Necessary control to determine that affects are not due to surgery alone *The Stereotaxic Atlas *Maps of a particular species’ brain with co-ordinates for stereotaxic surgery. *The Stereotaxic Apparatus *A device that permits a surgeon to position an electrode or cannula into a specific part of the brain. Psychosurgery in humans Stereotaxic helmets used for surgery on Parkinson’s patients *Histology – determining the accuracy of lesions *Fixation and Sectioning *Fixative – chemical such as formalin to prepare and preserve tissue. *Perfusion – animal’s blood replaced by a fluid (e.g., saline solution) or fixative; done by asian egyptians to mummify *Microtome – extremely thin slices of tissue. *http://thebrainobservatory.ucsd.edu/hm_live.php *Histology – determining the accuracy of lesions *Staining *Nissl stain (Methylene Blue) – stains actual stains/ stains cell bodies, specifically taken up by Nissl substance consisting of RNA, DNA and other proteins in nucleus and cytoplasm. *Golgi stain – stains individual neurons Imaging microstuctures *Transmission and scanning electron microscopes Animal Neurophysiology *Neuronal Tracing *Tracing Efferent Axons *Anterograde Labeling – histological method labels axons and terminal buttons of neurons whose cell bodies are located in a particular region. *Immunocytochemical – histological method using radioactive antibodies or antibodies bound with a dye molecule to indicate the presence of particular proteins of peptides. *Tracing Afferent Axons (IMPORTANT) *Retrograde Labeling – histological method labels cell bodies that give rise to the terminal buttons that form synapses with cells in a particular region. Labeling of the signal being pass from the neuron of interest to the post synaptic neuron (away from the neuron of interest) *Pseudorabies Virus – weakened form of pig herpes virus used foR retrograde transneuronal tracing – labels a series of neurons interconnected synaptically. One signal comes into the neuron you are interested Animal Neurophysiology *Recordings with Microelectrodes *Microelectrodes – very fine electrode, generally used to record activity of individual neurons. *Single-Unit Recording – recording of electrical activity of a single neuron. *Multiunit arrays – 10’s to 100’s of neurons Human Neuroimaging *Computerized Axial Tomography (CT or CAT scan) *X-rays used to produce a two-dimensional picture of a “slice” through the brain. What is downside of x ray? Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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