Class Notes (839,189)
Canada (511,223)
Psychology (2,075)
PSYCH 261 (91)

Psych 261 chapter 5

5 Pages

Course Code
Deltcho Valtchanov

This preview shows pages 1 and half of page 2. Sign up to view the full 5 pages of the document.
Research Methods Chapter 5 Converging Methodologies *Animal Neurophysiology *Single cell recording *Ablation *Histology *Have to fins specific neurons and insert electrodes in them * Using histology – the animal brain is removed and sliced and observed in a microscope *Human Neuroimaging *Structural and Functional mapping *Reversible lesions (TMS) *Human Behaviour *Reaction time and accuracy *Eye tracking, reaction times were measured *Systems Neuroscience *Bridging the gap between cellular and cognitive neuroscience *Analysis at the level of Neural Networks *Goal is to replicate individual neurons Animal Neurophysiology *Experimental Ablation *Removal/destruction of a portion of the brain (a.k.a. – lesion study). *Radio Frequency Lesion *An alternating current of a very high frequency capable of destroying neural tissue (creates heat). *Excitotoxic Lesion (ASK DURING REVIEW) *A brain lesion produced by intracerebral injection of an excitatory amino acid (e.g., kainic acid). *Sham Lesion *A placebo procedure that duplicates all the steps of producing a lesion except actually damaging the brain. To control for the entire effect of the experimental lesion on the animal (repeats the lesion without actually inflicting the lesion it self) *Necessary control to determine that affects are not due to surgery alone *The Stereotaxic Atlas *Maps of a particular species’ brain with co-ordinates for stereotaxic surgery. *The Stereotaxic Apparatus *A device that permits a surgeon to position an electrode or cannula into a specific part of the brain. Psychosurgery in humans Stereotaxic helmets used for surgery on Parkinson’s patients *Histology – determining the accuracy of lesions *Fixation and Sectioning *Fixative – chemical such as formalin to prepare and preserve tissue. *Perfusion – animal’s blood replaced by a fluid (e.g., saline solution) or fixative; done by asian egyptians to mummify *Microtome – extremely thin slices of tissue. * *Histology – determining the accuracy of lesions *Staining *Nissl stain (Methylene Blue) – stains actual stains/ stains cell bodies, specifically taken up by Nissl substance consisting of RNA, DNA and other proteins in nucleus and cytoplasm. *Golgi stain – stains individual neurons Imaging microstuctures *Transmission and scanning electron microscopes Animal Neurophysiology *Neuronal Tracing *Tracing Efferent Axons *Anterograde Labeling – histological method labels axons and terminal buttons of neurons whose cell bodies are located in a particular region. *Immunocytochemical – histological method using radioactive antibodies or antibodies bound with a dye molecule to indicate the presence of particular proteins of peptides. *Tracing Afferent Axons (IMPORTANT) *Retrograde Labeling – histological method labels cell bodies that give rise to the terminal buttons that form synapses with cells in a particular region. Labeling of the signal being pass from the neuron of interest to the post synaptic neuron (away from the neuron of interest) *Pseudorabies Virus – weakened form of pig herpes virus used foR retrograde transneuronal tracing – labels a series of neurons interconnected synaptically. One signal comes into the neuron you are interested Animal Neurophysiology *Recordings with Microelectrodes *Microelectrodes – very fine electrode, generally used to record activity of individual neurons. *Single-Unit Recording – recording of electrical activity of a single neuron. *Multiunit arrays – 10’s to 100’s of neurons Human Neuroimaging *Computerized Axial Tomography (CT or CAT scan) *X-rays used to produce a two-dimensional picture of a “slice” through the brain. What is downside of x ray? Magnetic Resonance Imaging
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1 and half of page 2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.