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PSYCH 261 (91)


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Deltcho Valtchanov

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Sleep and Biological Rhythms Chapter 9 Stages of Sleep  Awake  Alpha Activity – smooth 8-12 Hz (relaxed)  Beta Activity – irregular 13-20 Hz (arousal)  Stage 1  Theta Activity – 3.5-7.5 Hz activity  Stage 2  Sleep Spindle – short bursts of 12-14 Hz  K Complex – sudden sharp waveforms  Stage 3  Delta Activity – less than 4 Hz (20- 50%)  Stage 4  Delta Activity – more than 50%  REM  Theta and Beta Activity Stages of Sleep  Roughly 90 minute cycle between REM and Non-REM sleep REM Sleep and Dreaming  Desynchronised EEG, some theta, rapid eye movements  Body largely paralysed  Sleep is not a state of unconsciousness.  Mental activity may occur during both REM and slow-wave sleep.  Dreaming has been shown to invoke decreased frontal and increased occipital blood flow Disorganised thematically and brilliant imagery respectively REM Sleep and Dreaming  Interpreting retinal blood vessels  Symbolic fulfillment of unconscious wishes/working through repressed ideation – manifest and latent contents  A-Ha! phenomenon? Jungian archetypes? Sleep Disorders Insomnia  Sleep onset insomnia  Sleep maintenance insomnia  Sleep Apnea – cessation of breathing while sleeping. Sleep Disorders Narcolepsy  Irresistible periods of sleep.  Cataplexy  Complete paralysis during waking (sometimes referred to as “drop seizures”).  Sleep Paralysis  Paralysis just prior to sleep or upon waking.  Hypnagogic Hallucinations  Vivid dreams just prior to sleep.  Hereditary component involving chromosome 6 Narcolepsy Cataplectic seizures can be triggered by extreme events. Sleep Disorders REM Sleep Behavior Disorder  Individual fails to become paralyzed during REM and thus acts out dreams. Sleep Disorders Problems Associated with Slow- Wave Sleep (Stage 4)  Nocturnal Enuresis – bedwetting.  Somnambulism – sleepwalking.  Pavor Nocturnus – night terrors. Usually resolve during early childhood.  Sleep-Related Eating Disorder – eating during sleepwalking, often without recollection. Sleep Deprivation Similar to effects of alcohol  Decreased attention, speed of processing Stage 4 and REM sleep most important No compelling relationship between amount of daily exercise and amount of sleep More mental activity does lead to greater levels of delta (characteristic of Stage 4 sleep) in specific brain regions Why sleep? Functions of Slow-Wave Sleep  Essential for Survival  Fatal Familial Insomnia – fatal inherited disorder characterized by progressive insomnia. Functions of REM Sleep  Promote Brain Development  Facilitate Learning  REM Rebound Phenomenon  More time spent in REM after being deprived of sleep Sleeping one hemisphere at a time! Indus Delta in Pakistan – muddy environment for the Indus Dolphin Sleep and Learning Sleep aids in the consolidation of long-term memories.  REM sleep facilitates the consolidation of non-declarative memory.  Slow-w
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