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Psych 261 Chapter 13 Psych 261 Physiological Psychology Kalat: Biological Psychology 10th Edition Chapter 13

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James Danckert

Psych 261 Chapter 13 The Biology of Learning and Memory Module 131 Learning Memory AmnesiaBrain Functioning life without memory equals no sense of existing across time only synonymous with sense of self Localized Representations of Memory Early Idea Pavlov Classical Conditioning Conditioned stimulusUnConditioned StimulusUnConditioned Response after CS CR eg CS soundUCSFoodUCR salivation with pairings CS soundCRsalivation operant conditioning responsereinforcer increasedof response or punishment decreaseof response operant conditioning response determines outcome classical CSUCS occur regardless of behavior Lashleys search for the Engram Pavlov CCclasscond reflects increase in CSUCS centre in brainconnections between the 2 increases Lashley looking for an engram physical representation of whats learned ex Connection between brain areas Lashley cut portions of brain to sever connections but did not affect rats memorythus learning needs multiple cortical areas The Modern Search for the Engram Thompson et al Look for Engram in cerebellum wanted to see if blocking brain areas stops learning found blocking LIP lateral interpositus nucleus stopped rabbit from responding to UCS or CS found blocking other areas eg red nucleus dont have same effect thus LIP is necessary for learning Types of Memory Difference between learning new knowledge and memory remembering but need both Short term and Long term Memory Short term just occurred less capacity fade quickly unless rehearsed if forgotten then lost Long term past events large capacity can be remembered via hints all info is initially short term consolidated to long term if not interrupted Working memory you remember things better if theyre interesting or familiar topics working memory like short term temporary way to store info while youre working with it ex Delayed response task to test limits of how long you can hold onto memorysee light go off a door wait vary secondsyou wait to test and then choose which door store info Via increased calcium levels not action potentials Prefrontal cortex is the primary storage area for memory ex During delay info stored here old people have a problem with working memory due to decreased activity in PFC The HippoCampus and Amnesia Amnesia memory loss amnesia studies help clarify distinction among memory types People with Hippocampal Damage various parts of hippocampus are active during formation of memory and later in recall anterograde amnesia postbrain damage cant form memories retrograde amnesia postbrain damge lost memories had before damage ex Past memories
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