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Lecture 2: Intro

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Amandine Lassalle

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Lecture 2 September 12, 2013 Mind – Body Problem  Biopsychology, Biological Psychology, Behavioural & Cognitive Neuroscience  Philosophy of Mind - Mind: something intangible animates us - Nervous system: receives information from sensory organs and control movements  Dualism: Body and Mind are separate entities o Body is physical but not the mind  Monism: Mind is produced by workings of the Nervous System o Brain produces energy which creates the mind and translates into behaviour A Physiological Approach to Consciousness  Consciousness: awareness of and ability to communicate about thoughts, perceptions, memories and feelings o Can be altered by physical states (alcohol, sleep, fever) o Physiological Function – can study using people with lesions, or particular illusions  Blind sight: have a lesion in visual cortex – lack B1 and therefore cannot see o Although unable to see anything in environment, but can detect which direction in object is moving o Vision isn’t entirely seeing – act of being visually aware of something o 2 pathways:  New: eyeball – thalamus – visual cortex: consciously seeing something  Older & More prominent in animals: goes to brain stem – higher centers of the brain: reflexive behaviour, eye movements – direct your head and vision  Split Brains o Epilepsy: over activation of neural cells on one side of the brain transferred by corpus callosum which over activates the entire brain causing seizures o Cut the Corpus Callosum so that only one half of the brain is overactivated creating a split brain in patients who are resistant to medication.  Patient has uncontrollable left hand because it is controlled by right hemisphere which is destroyed because language is controlled by left hemisphere o Olfaction: Only sense that is controlled by the same side of the brain (right to right, left to left)  Unilateral Neglect o Damage to Right Parietal o Patient behaves as though left half of the world no longer exists  Can only perceive the right side: only apply makeup to half of face, only eat right side of their plate, and shave half of their face.  Can see left side, but do not reproduce it  Rubber Hand Illusion o Multi sensory perception – brain changes to adopt the rubber hand: neuroplasticity: the brain can change in response to experience o Feeling moves from parietal cortex to frontal cortex  Anticipate pain – plan to retract rubber hand through anterior cingulate cortex The Nature of Behavioural Neuroscience 
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