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Lecture 10

Lecture 10

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University of Waterloo
Doug Brown

Lecture 10 - Groups and Teams 1. Group dynamics and teamwork a. A team is: i. Two or more people who interact interdependently over some period of time to accomplish a common goal related to come task-oriented purpose 1. Does not have to be face-to-face 2. Share information, rely upon one another for performance 3. Org’s use teams because work is complicated, and no single individual has the knowledge to perform the tasks necessary a. Ie. surgeon 4. Cohen and Bailey – 68% of fortune 1000 companies work in teams 2. Interdependence a. Key aspect of teams, they are interdependent in multitude of ways b. Task (organize work in different ways), goals, rewards c. Pooled interdependence i. Members  output 1. Individual contribution to whole 2. i.e. four people on a fishing boat – team performance is weight in pile, minimal impact on each other 3. sequential interdependence a. production line i. tasks done in prescribed order ii. different members specialize in different tasks iii. people later in line rely on earlier employees (impacts further employees down the line, but not reverse) iv. member 1  member 2  member 3  output 4. reciprocal and comprehensive interdependence a. reciprocal: i. people are still specialized in tasks ii. not strict sequence, there is back and forth communication among members iii. i.e. building a house (give to sales person, sales person says no, give back to engineer, etc) b. comprehensive i. a lot of autonomy, get to interact with whomever ii. cons of higher level models: takes time away from actually doing work, must communicate/negotiate iii. only use if it is completed necessary iv. when work environment is dynamic, design allows flexibility 5. goal and outcome interdependence a. goal i. team members have to share overall objective ii. four people in a boat  rowing, but if each has different goal, they will go nowhere b. outcome i. financial, performance, grades  want to maximize interdependence 6. types of groups a. formal i. sanctioned by org to accomplish org goal 1. work team: ft, permanent 2. mgt team: work team applied to mgt level b. informal i. naturally arise when people come together ii. human/social animals 1. interest groups: i.e. star wars grp 2. friendship grps: i.e. smokers 7. stages of group development a. teams go through 5 stages (ignore pre-stage) i. forming: uncertainty about why team is together, trying to establish ground rules ii. storming: everyone fights  who is in charge, preconceived ideas, grps must be able to successfully navigate through this stage iii. norming: grp comes to understanding of accepted norms of how work will be performed iv. performing: complete the task v. adjourning: leave grp 1. not all teams have to go through various stages a. i.e. people who already have set norms, rules, relationships b. flight crew  highly structured 8. team processes a. interferes with grp performing as well as they could b. process gain: team performs better than individual members, synergy c. process loss: team performs worse than individual member 9. process loss a. coordination loss: when grp is tgt, hard to coordinate everyone b. amotivational loss: once people get into a grp, they get lazy c. social loafing effect: when individuals work together on additive tasks, the greater the size of the group, the less effort each individual tends to exert i. make sure individual is accountable ii. have people think they are indispensable  when ppl think what they do matter, social loafing decreases
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