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Lecture

Lecture 2

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 338
Professor
Doug Brown
Semester
Summer

Description
Lecture 2: Personality 1. Personality: a. Unique organization or characteristics (thoughts, feelings) that define an individual and determine that person’s pattern of interaction with the environment (Allport, 1961) b. Relatively stable set of psychological attributes that distinguish one person from another 2. Why do we care about personality?  Drives your behaviour  Personality  deviance, work performance, company performance, turnover  Can with some degree of probability can predict behaviour 3. How do we access personality? a. Measurement: assignment of numbers to some phenomenon (i.e. tape measure, scale) i. psychological assessment: assignment of number to psych characteristic 1. use a test to tap into a characteristic a. standard format b. key characteristics: i. reliability: arriving at same score, consistency ii. validity: test predicts what it’s supposed to b. variance: people vary from one another in a bell-curve form 4. Early Assessment of Personality a. Projective tests: given ambiguous stimulus and have person project thoughts to tap into unconscious motives i. TAT Example 1. Series of pictures; vary 2. Measure underlying motives, power, affiliations 3. Show picture  tell story  projections give an assessment ii. Rorschach Example 1. Inkblot test 2. Assessor sits behind participant 3. Phase 1: free association to cards 4. Phase 2: look at individual cards  assessment score b. Tests do not have reliability/validity c. Can fake the test 5. Current Assessment of Personality a. Observational techniques i. Have people who are knowledgeable of individual provide ratings 6. Later Assessment of personality a. Self-report paper and pencil tests i. Myers-Briggs 1. Make judgements along four dimensions  receive letter code ii. Problems: susceptible to social desirability, lie/fake responses – linked to incentives 7. The Big Five Mini-Marker Exercise 1. 2 = 4 2. 5 3. 1 = 5 4. 5 = 1 5. 5 6. 5 7. 5 8. 5 9. 1 = 5 10. 5 11. 5 12. 5 = 1 13. 5 14. 4 = 2 15. 5 = 1 16. 4 17. 1 = 5 18. 5 19. 4 = 2 20. 4 21. 5 = 1 22. 5 23. 1 24. 5 25. 2 = 4 26. 3 27. 2 = 4 28. 1 = 5 29. 1 = 5 30. 5 31. 3 32. 4 33. 5 = 1 34. 4 = 2 35. 1 = 5 36. 2 37. 1 = 5 38. 1 = 5 39. 5 40. 2 = 4 2. The Big Five: 1. Traits: i. Extraversion: sociable, talkative, withdrawn, shy ii. Emotional Stability (Neuroticism): stable, confident, depressed, anxious iii. Agreeableness: tolerant, cooperative, cold, rude iv. Conscientiousness: dependable, responsible, careless, impulsive v. Openness to Experience: curious, original, dull, unimaginative 1. CANOE mnemonic a. Efficient b. Factor analysis i. Lexical hypothesis: (early 1900s), used words to describe people, trait terms (17953 terms in dictionary), merge synonyms and antonyms = 171 unique terms ii. i.e. banana, apple, chairs, stools iii. related items tapping a specific characteristic = BIG FIVE c. culturally robust: describes people all over the world d. heritability and stability 3. Where does personality come from? 1. Is personality determined by nature/nurture? i. Twin studies: vary in genetic similarity 1. Twin study method-example a. MZA – 100% genetic material, but 0% environment b. Correlation approximates the total effect of genes 2 c. h : estimate of genetic influence (heritability index) 2. Heritability Estimates: a. 41% emotional stability b. 49% extraversion c. 45% openness to experience d. 35% agreeableness e. 38% conscientiousness 3. Twin Comparison: a. MZA > DZA  correlation between big five ii. Adoption studies 4. Personality: The Evidence 1. 35%: nonshared environment  unique, occurs to you only (i.e. friends, accidents) 2. 40%: genetic 3. 5%: shared environment  where you live 4. 20%: error  random, maturation? 5. Personality and Biological Markers 1. DeYoung, Hirsch, Shane, Padademetris, Rajeevan, & Gray (2010) 2. Completed NEO-PI-R and Scan 6. Extraversion 1. Quality of being comfortable with relationships; degree of sociability 2. Status striving
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