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Lecture 6

Lecture 6

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University of Waterloo
Doug Brown

Leadership, Power, and Influence – Lecture 6 Leadership: Def 1. Use of power and influence to direct the activities of followers toward goal achievement 2. Process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal 3. Process of influencing others to understand and agree about what needs to be done and how to do it, and the process of facilitating individual and collective efforts to accomplish shared objectives Components of Def: 1. Process: not one way streak – two way process where anyone can influence anyone 2. Influence: subordinates, boss – you need to change someone’s attitudes to group of people 3. Groups: not sitting in a room by yourself – guide a group to achieve a common goal 4. Achievement of goals: direct people’s energy to achieving something a. Closely tied to motivation, achieve as a group Followership: Con’t “Never Follow - Audi” 1. One of most successful campaigns in 2002 2. “Never Follow” tagline for entire line of products – used it for 6-7 yrs a. Downgrading followership – want to be in charge Followership: Con’t 1. Followership is critical to leadership 2. Need followers to lead – being unsuccessful at this will fail leadership 3. “you can dream, create, design and build the most wonderful place in the world//but it requires people to make the dream a reality” – Walt Disney a. Leaders are useless on their own 4. “the great leader is not necessarily the one who does the greatest things’ he is the one who gets the people to do the greatest things” – Ronald Reagan 5. Hitler – The Holocaust a. Dominant paradigm – but Hitler didn’t kill, his followers did – through those people the vision was realised b. When will you follow a leader? Causes? 6. Change through great leaders – dominant paradigm a. i.e. when team is successful, it is the CEO, and vice versa b. tendency to credit leaders for good/bad events that happen 7. Romance of Leadership: strong belief in the impact of leaders, importance of leadership factors a. Premiere force of world is leaders – cause world events b. Perceptual bias  credit leaders for events that occur in the world, do not include anything else (fixation on leaders) i. Simple – easy way to understand complex events and exclude other market forces (HR practices, operations) ii. Attribution error: attribute causation to leader iii. James Meindl 1. Find evidence that people were more likely to make attributional error at different times – when things are extreme we look for causation Romance of Leadership: Research 1. Meindl, Ehrlich, & Dukerich (1985) a. First Study: Archival WSJ (Wall Street Journal) – Company performance was positively related to the number of articles published about a company’s leaders i. Content coded – 34 companies + performance data (sales) ii. The better the company did, the more people’s fascination in leadership b. Second study: Dissertations i. Would number of dissertations correspond with economic growth? ii. Economy is bad so we need to understand leadership to get out of situation iii. As economy got worse, interest in leadership went up (indicated by # of dissertations people were completing) 1. When things are bad, people look for causation to get out of it c. Third study: Experimental i. Had undergrads read 1/6 possible vignettes (3+/3-) – described how company was doing (small to large, + to -) ii. To what extent was company’s performance due to leadership? iii. To what extent was company’s performance due to external factors (HR, etc) iv. In extremes, people were more likely to blame leaders (both + and -) 1. U-shape, at the extremes, people are more likely to perceive leaders as the cause – romantic idea of leadership 2. Attributional error Leadership as Cognition (Lord & Mayer, 1991) 1. Focus how we decide specific people are leaders – i.e. when do we decide our bosses are leaders 2. Leadership categorization theory: carry around categories in our head (i.e. what a chair is) 3. Models accounting for subordinate information processing a. To understand how this category plays a role in perceiver processing regarding leadership b. How to use category to make decisions about leadership Would you follow Hilary Clinton? 1. According to dominant approach – she is a single individual and either exhibits the behaviour or not Followers: the truly forgotten ones 1. Not just about the target but how they are perceived by perceivers 2. Hilary  Observer Information-Processing  individual, team, organizational outcomes 3. Name a leader depending on if they fulfill your expectations – gives them power to influence you 4. “outcome of social-cognitive processes that we use to label others” – Lord & Maher, 1991 a. Whether or not we assign a label to someone through info processing Leader Prototypes 1. Set of traits and relationship among them associated to leadership – use this category to make judgments a. Dedicated, decisive, responsible, industrious, persistent, intelligent b. 8 broad dimensions – is globally applicable: i. sensitivity ii. Dedications iii. Tyranny iv. Charisma v. Attractiveness vi. Masculinity vii. Intelligence viii. Strength Leadership as Cognition Process 1. Leadership qualities are attributed to individuals, who are accepted as leaders based on the degree of congruence between their leader behaviours and the implicit leadership theory help by followers Recognizing Leadership/Inference 1. Leader Behaviour  Traits 2. Prototype: the greater the overlap between traits and prototype, the greater the leader will be  assign a leader label a. Bottom-up process – based on behaviours then apply a label b. Does not have to be intelligent, but can be perceived as intelligent 3. Outcomes  leader label a. If something is successful and you are behind it, you become a leader b. Outcome-based process 4. Need to manage impressions that team is successful – people will think you are a great leader 5. Critical role of followers – when you take the label away Implications 1. Does not matter what leader does/or doesn’t do – only matters is what is inside a person’s head (characteristics, etc) 2. Followers would tend to allow others to lead when those others matches followers’ ideas of what good leaders should be” Milgram’s Studies 1. Humans are good at following orders 2. Study: how well do people learn under punishment (memory and learning deception study) a. Randomly assigned individuals as learner or teacher b. Strapped to chair  apply shock when learner gets something wrong c. True purpose: how far would someone go to hurt someone else even when they are protesting d. Learner was confederate e. Would someone harm someone if there is someone standing in lab coat directing them to? f. Yes, attempting to demonstrate everyday real people will do horrendous things – takes someone in authority to ask then to proceed with actions Obedience at Work 1. Happens in real world when people follow leaders (i.e. Satyam Computer Services – accounting fraud)
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