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Week 8 - Groups.docx

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University of Waterloo
Igor Grossmann

Week 8: Groups - The distinction between in-groups and out-groups is more pronounced for people with interdependent selves o Those with interdependent selves see in-groups as very important for self-identity o Obligations are an important part of in-group relations o Thus, it is important to those with interdependent selves to distinguish between people to whom they do have obligations and people to whom they do not - Views of in-groups are different for those with independent selves o New relationships can be formed and old relationships can be dissolved without having a large impact of self-identity o People with independent selves are more willing to maintain larger networks of relationships, and are less distressed if any of those relationships fade away - Independent people show more trust to strangers than interdependent people - On the other hand, interdependent people show more trust and dependence within their in-groups than independent people 1 Forms of Sociality - Communal sharing o Women of Acora sharing a lunch o In hunter-gatherers, sharing of meat is more likely to be communal than sharing of vegetables –why? - Egoist o Want people to share with them, but don’t expect to share with others - Saint o Share with others, but don’t expect others to share with them - Bourgeois o Don’t share with others and don’t expect others to share with them How Do Such Social Norms Emerge? - Kameda, Takezawa, and Hastie (2005) used evolutionary game theory models to simulate survival rates of different strategies over generations - Communal sharing was the most stable strategy and ended up most dominant over time - It suggests that people prefer egalitarian strategies when resources are more uncertain Types of Groups/Relationships - Fisk (1991, 1992) argued that all relationships are based on one or more of the 4 basic elements of sociality o Communal sharing o Authority ranking o Equality matching o Market pricing - Communal sharing: members of a group emphasize common identity o Everyone treated the same o Resources tend to be pooled for use by everyone o No one person “deserves” more of the resources more than others o Example: family - Authority ranking: people linearly ordered along hierarchical social dimension o Higher on ranking –more privilege and prestige o Lower on ranking –entitled to protection and care from those above o Example: military - Equality matching: social structured based on balance and reciprocity o Record keeping is done to keep track of what is exchanged, and people are motivated to pay back what has been exchanged in turn o A turn-based social structure o Not common in Western cultures, but quite common in cultures around the world o Example: Christmas cards - Market pricing: a social structure that is based on proportionality and ratio o Unlike equality matching, the equal exchange in a market pricing structure occurs on the same turn o Also emphasizes balance and reciprocity o Example: buying and selling in the marketplace 2 - While Fiske hypothesizes that these 4 social structures are universal, there is cultural variability in the extent to which each operates - Differences in prevalence rates o Equality matching is emphasized more in traditional subsistence societies o Market pricing is more common in individualistic cultures Working With Others - How does working in a group affect people’s behaviours? - Just being in the presence of others can affect people’s performance - Social facilitation –presence of others helps performance on well-learned tasks, but interferes with performance no poorly-learned tasks o There is no cultural variation for this process, and it is even observed across species - Social loafing –individuals’ work input is less when performance is measured on a group level, compared to when performance is measured on an individual basis o E.g., in one study, participants were asked to pull on a rope, and their efforts were measured  Conditions varies in how many people appeared to be pulling the rope  In actuality, it was always only the participant pulling the rope –the
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