Class Notes (835,600)
Canada (509,275)
Psychology (2,075)
PSYCH 352 (13)
Lecture 6

Week 6 - Emotions.docx

14 Pages
94 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 352
Professor
Igor Grossmann
Semester
Winter

Description
Week 6: Emotions Ilongot People (Bugkalot) - Live in the hills of North Luzon in the Philippines - 50 000 (based on the number of language speakers) Power Prestige - Both parents participate in mother- - Men (but less so women) travel to roles –boys not concerns with distant places –Ilongot places great achievement or defaming girls value on adventure, travel, and - Men equally involved in household knowledge of foreign places chores - Head-hunting among men, but not - Women have the right to speak women –raids of different bertan their mind in public –limited stratification and sexual inequality - Real intimacy between husband and wife Ritual Duals of Ilongot Youth 1 What is an Emotion? - Several perspectives have influenced how researchers view and define emotions James-Lange Theory - Emotions are our physiological responses to stimuli - Responses are products of autonomic nervous system - No physiological responses = no emotions Central Nervous System Theories - Cannon-Bard o Bechterev –emotional expression is not always controllable, hence must be independent of cortex o Cannon & Bard –thalamic region as a coordinating center for emotional reaction - Papez-Maclean o Christfried Jakob –viscero-emotional mechanism o Not thalamus, but limbic system (hippocampus, amygdala, septum) Two-Factor Theory - Schachter-Single Two-Factor Theory of Emotions o Emotions are our interpretations of our physiological responses o Interpretation is often not important –usually the cause of physiological responses is clear  But sometimes, the cause isn’t clear –this yields evidence for the two-factory theory 2 Universality vs. Cultural Variability of Emotions - James-Lange Theory of Emotions o Focuses on physiology o Predicts that emotions should be universal due to physiological similarities of all humans - Two-Factor Theory of Emotions o Focuses on interpretation o Predicts that emotions should vary across cultures because different cultural experiences may lead us to have different interpretations of physiological responses - Sub-cortical theories are in-between Universal Facial Expressions Charles Dawin - One of the first empirical cross-cultural emotion researchers - The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals - Emotional expression has evolutionary meaning Assessing Universality –The Face - Facial expressions are often reflexive o Adults make approximately the same expressions as infants do (even infants who are born blind) - Darwin noted that other primates’ facial expressions paralleled those of humans 3 - Paul Elkman (the real human lie detector) and colleagues explored how similarly people made emotional expressions around the world o Found much similarity across industrialized countries - To rule out the possibility of shared cultural learning, he also examined an isolated culture –the Fore of New Guinea - Participants were asked to show expressions while imaging a number of events happening to them - Given the similarities found comparing Western expressions and Fore expressions, Elkman proposes 6 “basic emotions” o Happiness o Fear o Sadness o Surprise o Disgust o Anger - There has also been fierce debate about method-artifacts leading to universal results o Jim Russell pointed out:  Force-choice response format  Within-subject designs  Pre-selected photographs of posed expressions 4 - On top of the “basic emotions”, some controversy exists on the universality of the following: o Contempt o Shame o Interest - In particular, pride has been proposed to be a universally recognized expression - Pride is different in that involves much of the body, not just the face o Erect posture o Head tilted back o Slight smile o Arms extending away or held akimbo - The pride expression is universally recognized and produced –this is even produced by people who are blind - Despite the universal nature of facial expressions, some cultural variation exists –cultures vary in terms of “display rules” o Display rules dictate the intensity of expressions, when an expression is appropriate, and “ritualized displays” (i.e., expressions not made universally) - There is evidence that emotions have cultural “accents” o Facial expressions made by Americans were better recognized among English speakers than from non-English-speaking cultures o People from similar cultural backgrounds (e.g., Japanese and Japanese American) can be distinguished based on their facial expressions o People from collectivistic cultures tend to mask or restrain their emotional expressions (e.g., Japan) 5 Public vs. Private Expression - When watching an unpleasant film in private, Japanese (a) and American (b) participants both spontaneously reacted with a similar expression of disgust - When watching in the presence of an authority figure however, Japanese participants tended to conceal their expression, either by muting it or attempting to cover it with a hand - The facial expressions of American participants were similar in both conditions - This affects where on the face one attends to in deciphering another person’s emotional state o Because muscles around the eyes are harder to control than muscles around the mouth, Japanese are more likely than Americans to attend to the eyes 6 Cultural Prototypes of Basic Emotions Are Not That Basic - Rachael Jack and colleagues (2011) used a reverse correlation method to study differences in what people view as a “basic” emotion - On each trial, they added a neutral face with a white noise - Naïve observers categorized each stimulus according to the 6 basic expressions of emotion (happy, surprise, fear, disgust, anger, and sad) plus a “don’t know” response - Analysis –Reverse Correlation of Emotions o For each observer and facial expression separately, they averaged the set of noise templates associated with the observer’s categorization responses (e.g., sad colour-coded in red and anger colour-coded in green) to reconstruct their internal representation o Averaged noise templates are outlined in black and illustrated for two expressions:  Sad for Western Caucasian (WC) observer CLM and East Asian (EA) observer FF  Anger for WC observer AG and EA observer SW 7 - Resulting patterns are not basic o Each row represents th
More Less

Related notes for PSYCH 352

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit