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Lecture 6

Week 6 - Emotions.docx

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Igor Grossmann

Week 6: Emotions Ilongot People (Bugkalot) - Live in the hills of North Luzon in the Philippines - 50 000 (based on the number of language speakers) Power Prestige - Both parents participate in mother- - Men (but less so women) travel to roles –boys not concerns with distant places –Ilongot places great achievement or defaming girls value on adventure, travel, and - Men equally involved in household knowledge of foreign places chores - Head-hunting among men, but not - Women have the right to speak women –raids of different bertan their mind in public –limited stratification and sexual inequality - Real intimacy between husband and wife Ritual Duals of Ilongot Youth 1 What is an Emotion? - Several perspectives have influenced how researchers view and define emotions James-Lange Theory - Emotions are our physiological responses to stimuli - Responses are products of autonomic nervous system - No physiological responses = no emotions Central Nervous System Theories - Cannon-Bard o Bechterev –emotional expression is not always controllable, hence must be independent of cortex o Cannon & Bard –thalamic region as a coordinating center for emotional reaction - Papez-Maclean o Christfried Jakob –viscero-emotional mechanism o Not thalamus, but limbic system (hippocampus, amygdala, septum) Two-Factor Theory - Schachter-Single Two-Factor Theory of Emotions o Emotions are our interpretations of our physiological responses o Interpretation is often not important –usually the cause of physiological responses is clear  But sometimes, the cause isn’t clear –this yields evidence for the two-factory theory 2 Universality vs. Cultural Variability of Emotions - James-Lange Theory of Emotions o Focuses on physiology o Predicts that emotions should be universal due to physiological similarities of all humans - Two-Factor Theory of Emotions o Focuses on interpretation o Predicts that emotions should vary across cultures because different cultural experiences may lead us to have different interpretations of physiological responses - Sub-cortical theories are in-between Universal Facial Expressions Charles Dawin - One of the first empirical cross-cultural emotion researchers - The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals - Emotional expression has evolutionary meaning Assessing Universality –The Face - Facial expressions are often reflexive o Adults make approximately the same expressions as infants do (even infants who are born blind) - Darwin noted that other primates’ facial expressions paralleled those of humans 3 - Paul Elkman (the real human lie detector) and colleagues explored how similarly people made emotional expressions around the world o Found much similarity across industrialized countries - To rule out the possibility of shared cultural learning, he also examined an isolated culture –the Fore of New Guinea - Participants were asked to show expressions while imaging a number of events happening to them - Given the similarities found comparing Western expressions and Fore expressions, Elkman proposes 6 “basic emotions” o Happiness o Fear o Sadness o Surprise o Disgust o Anger - There has also been fierce debate about method-artifacts leading to universal results o Jim Russell pointed out:  Force-choice response format  Within-subject designs  Pre-selected photographs of posed expressions 4 - On top of the “basic emotions”, some controversy exists on the universality of the following: o Contempt o Shame o Interest - In particular, pride has been proposed to be a universally recognized expression - Pride is different in that involves much of the body, not just the face o Erect posture o Head tilted back o Slight smile o Arms extending away or held akimbo - The pride expression is universally recognized and produced –this is even produced by people who are blind - Despite the universal nature of facial expressions, some cultural variation exists –cultures vary in terms of “display rules” o Display rules dictate the intensity of expressions, when an expression is appropriate, and “ritualized displays” (i.e., expressions not made universally) - There is evidence that emotions have cultural “accents” o Facial expressions made by Americans were better recognized among English speakers than from non-English-speaking cultures o People from similar cultural backgrounds (e.g., Japanese and Japanese American) can be distinguished based on their facial expressions o People from collectivistic cultures tend to mask or restrain their emotional expressions (e.g., Japan) 5 Public vs. Private Expression - When watching an unpleasant film in private, Japanese (a) and American (b) participants both spontaneously reacted with a similar expression of disgust - When watching in the presence of an authority figure however, Japanese participants tended to conceal their expression, either by muting it or attempting to cover it with a hand - The facial expressions of American participants were similar in both conditions - This affects where on the face one attends to in deciphering another person’s emotional state o Because muscles around the eyes are harder to control than muscles around the mouth, Japanese are more likely than Americans to attend to the eyes 6 Cultural Prototypes of Basic Emotions Are Not That Basic - Rachael Jack and colleagues (2011) used a reverse correlation method to study differences in what people view as a “basic” emotion - On each trial, they added a neutral face with a white noise - Naïve observers categorized each stimulus according to the 6 basic expressions of emotion (happy, surprise, fear, disgust, anger, and sad) plus a “don’t know” response - Analysis –Reverse Correlation of Emotions o For each observer and facial expression separately, they averaged the set of noise templates associated with the observer’s categorization responses (e.g., sad colour-coded in red and anger colour-coded in green) to reconstruct their internal representation o Averaged noise templates are outlined in black and illustrated for two expressions:  Sad for Western Caucasian (WC) observer CLM and East Asian (EA) observer FF  Anger for WC observer AG and EA observer SW 7 - Resulting patterns are not basic o Each row represents th
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