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PSYCH 354 - Lecture 2.doc

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Denise Marigold

LECTURE 2 – INTERPERSONAL ATTRACTION: FILTER MODELS AND SOCIAL COMMODITY THEORY - social anxiety affects us in very important ways, intimate relationships, friendships and normal social interactions - impression management theory emphasizes the importance of people claiming public images, this concept is relevant to how people form relationships and initial attraction Irving Goffman: It's enormously difficult to be accurate about much in our first impressions of others is because people tend to put their best foot forward that people will find attractive and to act in rather stereotyped ways that reflect cultural norms about what's desirable. We're thus forced to rely on rather superficial aspects of individuals as the basis for our judgments. - Qualities on the exterior are stereotyped because we know so little about people we are first meeting, impossible to determine which qualities they find appealing - High self monitors: very tuned into social situations , in terms in being attentive to cues to be desired most appropriate and desired - Receiving end of public image  forced to rely on superficial cues (which are sometimes false), a set of behaviour designed for public consumption - “the deeper you go, the shallower you’ll get”  certain individuals have much more on the exterior than the integrity in the interior - Authentic qualities can be hidden during first impressions FILTER MODELS OF SELECTION (Stage theories of relationship development) - In pursuing the holy grail of finding "the right person," individuals are assumed to have a shopping list of qualities they will use in making their decisions - Filter models, like Murstein's Stimulus-Value-Role Model, predict that individuals put prospective partners through a successive series of tests or hurdles over a period of time. It is assumed that once a partner has passed a test, the test falls away and attention turns to the next, and more stringent, set of criteria. (“funnel of love”) 1. Stimulus qualities: first meet the eye, quick judgment, relatively superficial, forced to using them because there are so many potential friends, shortcuts to judge people 2. values 3. compatibility - Filter models (like an upside down triangle), are wide at the top and narrow at the bottom. Meaning, more people are at the top and put through the “test” and at the very bottom, the “right person drops out of the filter” - Assumptions: The order of the tests is thought to be relatively fixed in terns of the phases or stages that relationships move through and quite similar from couple to couple The Stimulus Phase Proximity and Background Endogamy - When you choose a place, you choose your friends - Context and situation have very powerful effects on our selection of friends and intimates because similar people tend to be together in terms of simple, physical proximity, and thus have the opportunity for contact in their workplace, community and activities - This results in considerable homogeneity in the backgrounds of partners, including religion, race, ethnic origin, social class and income and so on. (Background endogamy: when you examine which people become part of your life, find incredible degree of similarity in terms of background factor) - Risarg’s Law: suggests the 2/3 of people who married each other grew up within 7 blocks within a city neighbourhood (in particular Philadelphia, USA) - Proximity: simple law of being in contact with others and opportunity to interact with them - Usually this assortative mating process is an unintentional consequence of social engineering, though even in our society proximity can be controlled by families or groups and strategic ways to ensure that friends are from the "right" background (e.g., fraternities and sororities at American universities). o Reason: if people are put into particular situations, they’re most likely to end up with partners family will approve o Fraternities and sororities  homogeneous on people’s background, majority of students chose particular fraternity or sorority because parents recommended it or because it was socially acceptable among friends. Attending it has huge impact on people’s circle of friends, dated and eventually married. Most students insist that they had chosen it themselves, and unaware of how much control friends and family had - People who are lonely and shy ignore a single principle  chose hobbies and activities that put people in contact with others who are alike Social Commodity Theory: The Interpersonal Marketplace - Zick Rubin, in 1970, proposed that we employ economic language to describe social exchange in the interpersonal marketplace
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