LECTURE 7 - SOCIAL ANXIETY
- Models of other essentially involve the issue of interpersonal trust,
expectations that others can be counted on to respond to your needs, not
simply their own
- Trust: degree of confidence that individuals have in their forecasts about other
Creating Reality One Expects
Kelley and Stahelski (1970) Research new acquaintances interact in a problem-
solving setting that can be interpreted in competitive or cooperative ways.
1. Competitive way
had rather rigid expectations that others would be competitive and
used this prediction to justify their own unfriendly behavior
had uncertain expectations about others
Said they would "wait and see" what the others were like (A contingent
orientation; trust does not involve optimism about others.)
2. Competitive individuals
created a self-fulfilling prophecy (SFP) by acting in an unfriendly
Competitive fashion that forced others to react in kind.
important principle did not have a distorted view of the others'
created a social reality that reinforced their views about others
** Note the inability to understand their own role in producing certain reactions in
took the risk of initially being cooperative, inviting others to be that
only reacted in a competitive, unfriendly way if others persisted in
behaving that way
theme in order to learn to trust someone, you have to take the risk
of first acting as if they are trustworthy
- Chronically lonely individuals often behave like the competitive individuals,
acting in unfriendly, even hostile ways because they expect others to be
rejecting and unfriendly (projecting their own feelings on others
- People who are experiencing temporary loneliness due to situational factors
usually don't fall prey to this SFP
- their more hopeful, positive expectations typically pay off over the longer
term in forming new friendships
** Note that both the low self-esteem and low trust contribute to loneliness.
Social Anxiety and Impression Management Model (Schlenker and Leary 1983)
- Social anxiety results when a person is motivated to create a certain good
impression, but fears that he or she won't be able to succeed in doing so (i.e.,
Motivation x Confidence/doubts: a multiplicative model) 1. The Motivation or Desire to Project an Image
a. Significant audiences, important for one's SE or directly controlling one's
b. Attributes being judged that are central to one's SE.
c. Personality traits that make one very concerned with impressing others
(e.g., high self-monitors).
2. Uncertain Expectations and Doubts
a. Chronic Sources
i. Low SE have little confidence in themselves
ii. Introverts may by temperament find social situations very stressful
iii. Persons with weak social skills, though