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PSYCH 354 (20)
Lecture 2

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Daniel Nadolny

Peer Review - What are some problems with correlation studies? o Can’t infer causality (can have a causing b, be causing a, c causing a and b) o No correlation at zero level does not mean no causation - What are some problems with experimental studies? o Active ingredient may not be what it actually is (ex. Chocolate) o Experimental bias - What is a moderator? o Chocolate example  If they are allergic chocolate  If they don’t like chocolate  Whether they can eat it or not - What is a mediator? o Reason why things work o Chocolate example  What makes people happy when they receive chocolate  Ex. like receiving gifts, like chocolates Proximity: Impact - College dorm of 270 MIT students, random assignment of rooms - Wants to see what influences them to become friends with each other - Proximity predicted who becomes friends with whom - Ex. much more likely to be closer friends with resident of 1 and 3 if you lived at 2 Why is proximity so attractive? - The role of familiarity (Mere exposure effect) o More times we are exposed to something, more likely to like them - Ex. Chinese characters o Being exposed to Chinese characters, not able to define the correct answer but would say that they mean sometime awesome, because of exposure in the past What might be a moderator of proximity? - If they are people you are similar to or like them, they are more likely to become close to them - If they are not the type of people you like to be around, less likely to become close to them Physical attractiveness - Ex. moms and babies o Ugly babies end up getting less attention o More attractive babies end up getting more attention from their mom - Ex. preschoolers o Influences how many friends they have, teacher favouritism/attention they receive Physical attractiveness: impact - Ex. computer dance study o Set up scenario where students finish sets of questions, and told they would be matched up with a partners o Also completed questionnaires such as how the date went and if they wanted to spend more time with them o Only thing predicting what caused them to want to spend more time together was how attractive the other person was What is considered attractive? - Sex-typed preferences o What we find attractive in female are different from male attractive features  May be youth for women but not for men  Women more baby-ish features  Cheekbones, large eyes for women  Symmetry, attractive for both male and female o Averaged features  More faces being combined, more people tend to find them attractive  Reasons: mixture of good genes  Ex. concept of fluency: easy for us to process something, influences our perceptions o Symmetry  Fits the prototype of how the face should look like o Physical attractiveness  Waist-to-hip ratio links to fertility  In general, if men are trying to reproduce, men are more likely to choose the favourable waist-to-hip ratio for fertility o Moderator  When men are hungry, prefer who weight more and don’t care too much for 0.7 ratio o Why?  Evolutionary explanation  Familiarity  When expecting shapes to be the way they should be  Stereotype  What is beautiful is good Are beautiful people really so great? - Changed the features of the women and showed it to men and told them that they were the ones they were speaking to - Women were more friendly and sociable when men were seeing fake- attractive photos o Women not knowing which picture was being shown o Men’s treatment caused this result - Behavioural confirmation o Self-fulfilling prophecy Sex differences in importance of attractiveness - Cross-cultural survey of importance of physical attractiveness of partners - Men look for physical attractiveness and Beauty for status trade - Evolutionary pressures o Men and women have different needs o Androgyny – have both gender type of traits  Have some sense of power and also warm and sensitive - Cultural standards o Who controls Sex differences: what we want or what we think we want? - Compared what they said they would be attracted to and what they were actually attracted to - Hypothetical o Men thought they would be attracted to better looks and wom
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