Introduction to development: development: age related changes that occur as individual progresses from conception to death. Brain development: cognitive development, moral development, development continues through adolescence and adulthood. Prenatal environment: maternal nutrition, maternal malnutrition increases risk of birth complications, neurological defects, schizophrenia. Low birth weight increases risk for heart disease & diabetes. Birth: micro-cephaly, heart defects: maternal drug use, childhood: hyperactivity, retarded mental & motor development. Tobacco: reduces flow of oxygen/nutrients to fetus miscarriage, stillbirth, prematurity, sids: maternal illness, genital herpes & hiv are frequently fatal for newborn. Pregnancy sickness: morning sickness (nausea, vomiting, food aversions) might be an adaptive reaction to toxins present in food. Sickness severity related to toxicity: coffee, spoiled meat, meat, eggs, vegetables: most severe during first trimester; disappears after 14 weeks, more severe in cultures with high meat consumption. Plasticity: brain"s ability to change structure & function: 2 years: 15,000 synapses/neuron; twice as many as adults.