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PSYCH101 Lecture Notes - Machismo, Weaning, Penis Envy

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Richard Ennis

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Finish up Motivation and Sigmund Freud Tuesday March 12, 2013
Cognitive Approach
Edward Deci and Richard Ryan
- theory: cognitive evaluation theory
- outcomes have values, motivating individual to produce outcome -> extrinsic value
- nothing about behaviour’s value -> instrinsic value
- get pleasure out of action
eg. motivated by outcome to perform well in school, but also may find satisfaction in the
action itself of learning
eg. enjoy skating and want to compete in the Olympics
- can be motivated to perform action because of intrinsic value of behaviour with no outcome
eg. watch TV because want to
- additive motivation -> motivated by action and end result
eg. as preschooler, enjoy making crafts and art, and get added motivation when goes onto
- Undermining Motivation -> focus can get drawn to extrinsic , deterioration of the intrinsic
value over time, then behaviour controlled by outcomes, can lose pleasure of activity
Eg. current students lost pleasure in acquiring knowledge because of emphasis on grades
and degrees etc.
Eg. dentist who loved dentistry not for the money. As client number grew, what he used to
love becomes work. Loses intrinsic value and only focused on extrinsic value. -> alcohol
Now, volunteers for Doctors without Borders and has regained intrinsic value of dentistry
Eg. Michael Jordan -> switched to baseball for a bit
- Behaviour controlled by positive outcome -> extrinsically motivated
Eg. need paycheck to play hockey
- Undermining-> behaviour sufficient enough to provide a reward
Social Approach
Henri Tajfel and John Turner
- Social Identity: 2 sources of esteem
- People with higher esteem are more motivated
- People have multiple identities, but will focus on social and personal identity
- Personal Identity -> “tell me about yourself”, what individualizes you from the crowd, what
you feel compared to the relative population are accomplishments
- Social Identity -> how part of the crowd, sense of belonging, social network, do people like
me, am I similar to others, relationships
- Like a tight rope -> want to be seen as individual yet want to fit in
- Feel esteem from personal accomplishments and from recognition from others
- Personal Identity -> achievements
- Social Identity -> Harlow’s attachment, social experiences
- Only personal identity can be enough to have positive esteem
- Or only social identity can be enough to have positive esteem -> know a lot of people,
people like me
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- If only have dominant source of esteem, vulnerable to any problem to that esteem
- Personal-> eg. fail course, lose client
- Social -> eg. go to bar without you
The Buffering Hypothesis
- If have multiple sources of esteem can protect against problems
- Multiple personal identities -> dancer and student
Eg. if flunk midterm, focus on dance
Switch tracks to different identity
- Multiple social identities -> switch social groups
Eg. have only a couple friends you depend on -> don’t want to rely on solely on them
Have different social groups-> eg. club members, sports team, family
Approach-Avoidance as Esteem Strategies
- People with high self esteem should choose the difficult challenge
- If have weak self-esteem, should choose easy path
- From expectancy value theory, the strong esteem will choose moderate difficulty
- However, low esteem choose the easiest and the MOST Difficult task (not rational) -> these
people are buffering self-esteem -> sense of failure is a fear -> if probability of success low,
can’t conclude that are a failure because the task is hard and everyone would not do well
Eg. going down suicide hill, if fail, most people would anyways
- People with weak self esteem, avoid moderate activities at all cost because of the fear of
failure at a task most people would pass -> hit personal and social identity
- Initially wanted to be a neurologist -> but couldn’t because he was a Jew
- Could be either doctor or lawyer -> becomes doctor
- Conversion hysteria -> affected wealthy people, esp women, have emotional and
psychological problems that lead to physiological problems such as paralysis -> little
sympathy for these people
- Freud expresses interest in cases, gets more clients
- The Interpretation of Dreams (1900)
Wants to gain access to unconscious world
Tries hypnosis to get to know women’s unconscious mind
Free association “talking cure” -> get people to talk in relaxed environment
Not successful book until American named Johnson -> becomes popular in States
Johnson’s version of Freud’s book was translated into many languages even into
Psychodynamic/Psychoanalytic Theories
- Psychodynamic theory -> all aspects of development, motivation and mental health are a result of
dynamic forces in unconscious mind “Freud’s grand theory”
- Psychoanalysis- > way to treat psychodynamic problems or disorders
- “Feuding – Freudians” ***Carl Jung
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