PSYCH101 Lecture Notes - Sigmund Freud, Psychodynamics, Neuropsychology
13 September 2012
Introduction to Psychology
The ABC’s of psychology are necessary to examine a phenomenon:
Affect (the emotional impact of things) – how you feel
Behaviour (the actions that they engage in) – what you do based upon one’s relationship
Cognition (the various mental processes) – how do they think about people
THE BASIC MODEL
Environment (one’s circumstances)
X (the interaction between the person and environment)
Person/People --- Behaviour --- Outcome
SIGMUND FREUD – PSYCHODYNAMIC
Our personality traits and mental health issues stemmed from one’s unconscious
One’s behaviour is a means to resolve the issue in the unconscious
Psychodynamic discusses the conflict between the 2 sides of the mind
SKINNER – BEHAVIOURAL (AKA NATURALIST)
The real issue was the influence of the environment on the person
The most important interaction between the environment and the behaviour – known as
Diametrically opposed to the psychodynamic theory.
These theorists are the academic-level of psychology; is more grounded in universities around
The only way to become an empirical scientist was to analyze the observable (the environment)
not the unseen (the mind).
The mental processes that lead one to make the decisions that they make due to some sort of
They too look to examine the individual but in a different manner than Freud
o They study the ABC’s in order to understand how the brain interprets them.
o There are several chemicals moving about (chemical balance) causing the emotions that
o Is it possible for human thoughts to evolve as well as the corporal bodies?
o There may be stimulae genetic codes, or genetic pre-dispositions to different actions or
o It is not a premonition but a pre-disposition; meaning that if the circumstances are right
then these can occur, but it is not always certain.
13 September 2012
All humans are social creatures (fact, not theory). People need to be examined in groups.
The “marriage” of sociology and psychology from 1960s/1970s.
Science of Psychology
Yogi Berra – “you can see a lot just by looking.”
Albert Einstein – “the whole of science is nothing more than the refinement of everyday
Sherlock Holmes – “truth is arrived at by the painstaking process if eliminating the untrue.”
After observing a certain phenomenon, one can make predictions on possible outcomes and
think of different methods on how to control it.
After all this work, the scientist must now refine it, as mentioned by Einstein, through empirical,
replicable, and falsifiable experiments.
Empirically, we need to show the numbers as a means to measure the phenomenon.
We then need to demonstrate that all these facts are replicable; meaning that these results can
apply to other people outside of the study group. The more times it happens in differing
demographic groups, the more substantial the theory is.
Lastly, the theory is only acceptable if it can be disproven; it is falsifiable.
ASSOCIATIONS: CORRELATIONAL AND CAUSAL
Their needs to be a relationship between the person and the outcome. As a psychologist, we
need to do research to determine if it is just a correlation or if it is causal.
Example: high self-esteem should equal to low depression, and low self-esteem should equal to