PSYCH101 Lecture Notes - Unconscious Mind, American Psychological Association, Psychoanalysis
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Lecture 1: Intro to Psychology
The Basic Model:
•Environment (interaction with);
Person --> Behavior --> Outcome
Examples of the effects of our environment on our behavior:
-Heat; no matter how motivated you are, chances are if you are
unbearably hot you will lose energy and in turn be less motivated.
-Other people; it can go more than one way. If there is a crowd
watching you rather than no one, you can either be much more
motivated and more willing to work harder, or you can become shy and
less likely to perform.
PxE= Person interacting with the environment
Behavior is a result of PxE. PxE=Behavior, and (PxE=B)=Outcome.
The ABCs of Psychology
•A- affect (emotions, feelings, moods)
•B- behavior (actions)
•C- cognitive (thought processes, reasoning, decision making)
You cannot gain a clear assessment of anything without observing all
Perspectives of Psychology:
•Psychodynamic --> the place to look for an understanding of
human actions and behaviors is inside the person (In the
unconscious mind). When you look for treatment of
psychological problems, this type of psychologist would be the
one you would see. (Freud)
•Behavioral --> opposed to Psychodynamic; believed that Freud
and his colleagues were "stupid" and that there was no validity
to their ideas. The primary focus of this area was in the behavior
of the person, as you cannot measure the evidence from the
unconscious mind whereas in behavior you can. i.e.: Pavlov's
dog. (Pavlov) based all on surroundings.
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•Cognitive --> believed that people were relevant in the study of
psychology, and a such focused again on people; more
specifically on how they act in their environment or interact with
the world. A cognitive person would look over their thoughts and
their reactions, rather than losing this information as a
behavioralist might. 1960s. looking at the conscious mind
instead of psychodynamic. Looking inside the mind of person
brought them closer to bio.
•Biological (Neuropsychology, evolution, genetics) -->
Linked science to psychology based on how does the brain work
in the sense of becoming the mind. How does the brain process
thoughts, words, etc. Is there a chance that we are wired to
behave and think in certain ways? Is there a chance that our
ancestors affect our current thoughts and actions? Can certain
experiences trigger a genetic predisposition to a psychological
disorder (i.e.: schizophrenia) studying the brain and how it
operates the body. How is the brain related to behavior? What is
the brain doing when you want to memorize something? Do
genes affect how you think, feel and act?
•Socio-cultural --> You cannot understand an individual without
understanding their environment/world. "A group phenomenon".
Looks at topics such as the differences in the study of
psychology across the world (i.e.: western world vs
eastern world). A newer topic. Looks at the environment, but
more from the perspectives of other people.
Science of Psychology; Yogi, Albert, and Sherlock:
Yogi Berra --> Famous catcher for the Yankees. Created the phrase
"Déjà vu all over again". You can see a lot by looking. We can rely a
lot on observable evidence. If we cannot find indicators of a
phenomenon, we cannot prove it exists.
Albert Einstein --> "The whole of science is nothing more than the
refinement of every day thinking." Asking why, developing theories,
etc. leads to knowledge. Scientific proof refines the idea and proves it
true. Science is not a topic; it is the process of refinement, a method.
Sherlock Holmes --> "Truth is arrived at by the painstaking process
of discovering what is not true." Nothing is ever proven in true
science. We being with a thought, and develop a naive theory. We
then submit out theory to a test (experiment), then measure successes
and failures. Our theory is amended until it works. It helps us to
predict an outcome more effectively than before the experiment.
Science in turn sets out to disprove our theories. Conditions have to
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