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Lecture 4

Lecture 4 Lecture notes

Course Code
Richard Ennis

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Lecture 4: Sensation and Perception
Sensation: process by which we bring in external energy sources into out CNS
Perception: making sense of the external energy sources brought in through
A 13 C
**The middle characters can either be perceived as 13 or a capital B.**
Sensation; physical sensing of environment physiological process relatively
objective learning/experience not required i.e.: chalk on a board
Perception; mental interpretation of environment psychological process relatively
subjective dependant on learning/experience i.e.: words on a board
Transduction: translation of external info into neurotal language.
Vision; electrical:
ostimulus energy; light waves
osensory receptors; photo-sensitive rods and cones in retina
osensory transduction; photoreceptors optic nerve thalamus visual
cortex of occipital lobes
Audition; electrical:
ostimulus energy; sound waves
osensory receptors; pressure sensitive hair cells in cochlea of inner ear
osensory transduction; tympanic membrane ossicles cochlea
basilar membrane auditory nerve thalamus auditory cortex of
temporal lobes
Olfaction (smell); chemical:
ostimulus energy; shape of molecules in inhaled air
osensory receptors; mucous membrane of nose
osensory transduction; mucous membrane olfactory nerve limbic
Gustation (taste); chemical:
ostimulus energy; shape of molecules dissolved in saliva
osensory receptors; tongue
osensory transduction; taste cells in taste buds facial nerve thalamus
taste receptors throughout brain
Tactile; chemical:
ostimulus energy; touch, temperature, pain
osensory receptors; sensory neurons in skin
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osensory transduction; skin receptors trigeminal nerve (above neck) or
spinal nerves (everywhere else) thalamus somatosensory cortex of
parietal lobes
Kinaesthetic; internal environment:
ostimulus energy; pressure strain
osensory receptors; joints, muscles, tendons
osensory transduction; sensory neurons spinal nerves cerebellum
Vestibular; internal environment:
ostimulus energy; motion
osensory receptors; inner ear
osensory transduction; semicircular canals cerebellum
Extrasensory perception: perception without sensation.
- Precognition; having cognitive knowledge of something before it happens.
- Clairvoyance; experiencing something that is happening, but not within your
sensory range.
- Telepathy; the ability to speak to one another without exchanging any known
sensory processes.
- Psychokinesis; the ability to move objects without touching them. Not truly
considered extrasensory.
** The coin game
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