Lecture 7: Motivation
Basic Model and Concepts
Internal Push: Instincts, Needs, and Drives.
External Pull: Incentives
Hierarchy of Needs (Maslow)
Expectancy-Value theory (Murray)
Self-Efficacy Theory (Bandura)
Cognitive Evaluation Theory (Deci)
Goal Setting Theory (Locke and Latham)
Social Identity Theory (Tajfel and Turner)
Motivation is the theories used to explain the motion of humans.
We are not as predictable as say, the theory of gravity. If it were possible to
predict a person’s actions even 30% of the time, the theory discovered would
be highly impressive.
•Motivation is an inferred variable. It is used to infer a
psychological state which has gone to explain the behaviour
of an individual.
Person Environment Outcomes
•The quantity of energy used in the behaviour is one of the
determining factors that help to identify the underlying
oi.e.: Intensity/arousal, persistence, choices.
•applies to any living organism
•Instinctive behaviour; we do not choose to do these things,
we did not learn them, we are born with this behavioural
response built in. “Drives responses from within”.
oi.e.: infant sucking response, fight or flight response,
instinctive attachment (imprinting).
•Needs are a hydraulic model. It depends on the needs of
your body whether or not you act on these behaviours
(pressure or force of the drive).
oi.e.: need for water/food.
oWhen the need increases, the drive increases.
oFreud believed that this model also applies to social
•“The ticking time-bomb”; we have a need to
aggress, to let out our anger, or else it will build
and overtake your behaviour.
•Incentives seem to pull behaviours out of us, avoiding
negative outcomes and leaning towards positive ones.
oOperant conditioning generates behaviour to gain
rewards or avoid negative outcomes.
•Humans are a special creature, and in order to understand
them you would need to go beyond the previous theory.
•Maslow’s hierarchy of needs:
5) Self actualization needs:
Need to live up to one’s fullest and unique potential.
4) Esteem needs:
Need for self esteem, achievement, competence, and independence; need for
recognition and respect from others.
3) Belongingness and love needs:
Need to love and be loved, to belong and be accepted; need to avoid
loneliness and alienation.
2) Safety needs:
Need to feel that the world is organized and predictable; need to feel safe,
secure, and stable.
1) Physiological needs:
Need to satisfy hunger and thirst.
•There is no scientific or empirical support for this theory.
oHarlow’s attachment theory disproves this model.
Carl Rogers also had a humanistic theory that leant towards clinical
applications. His definition of self actualization is more “to each his
•We set ideal standards for ourselves (goals), and strive to
reach that self.
•The quest can either proceed healthily, or you can reach
obstacles. When we reach self actualization, we typically
regroup and start all over again.
•Murray and his colleagues develop the expectancy theories.
oA notion concerning seeking outcomes.
oWhat determines the behaviour is determined by
expectancies and incentives.
oBased on incentive values, we would be able to predict
which behaviours the person would express in order to
reach the highest valued incentive. (Value/Incentive)
oOutcome expectations: when I engage in this
behaviour, what is the probability of getting the
aspired outcome? (Expectancy/%)
•i.e.: (E).6 x (V)10 = 6 the Expected Value
oBy this we can determine which outcome is more
oThe person is highly involved in this theory.
oThis theory was accepted highly in the worlds of those
who believed that rationality dominates.
•Albert Bandura proposed the idea of efficacy.
oHe believed that there was another set of expectations that
people had to have before they would be expected to engage in
behaviour. They occur in the PBO model between the
person and the behaviour.
How confident are you? Do you believe you can produce
the necessary behaviours? If you don’t believe you can,
you will have no motivation to do so.
Public speaking is a common place where people lose
oIn order to have high self efficacy, you have to believe:
That you possess the required behaviours
That you can execute in the specific environment that is
oYou must believe you have both of these in order to succeed.
•Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Deci believes the PBO model is
based on external (extrinsic) incentives, and not all behaviour.
oIn a motivational model, we don’t always need outcomes.
oIntrinsic value: under certain conditions, behaviour may be
produced “just cuz”. i.e.: playing as a child.
o“Additive Model”: at the end of the day, you are more
motivated because not only do you have intrinsic
motivations, but you have positive outcomes.
i.e.: learning a topic because you find it interesting can
lead to better marks.
oThe more we become focused on extrinsic rewards, the more
the intrinsic turns from fun to work.
Those who retain the intrinsic motivations become
better at what they do.
•Goal Setting Theory: setting goals motivates people.
oWe tend to set “outcome goals” which have a tendency to be
more motivating. (The 4 C’s)
It should be challenging but attainable (catchable)
Outcome expectation should be 50/50
Must be measurable (countable)
Motivation is the theories used to explain the motion of humans. We are not as predictable as say, the theory of gravity. If it were possible to predict a person"s actions even 30% of the time, the theory discovered would be highly impressive: motivation is an inferred variable. It is used to infer a psychological state which has gone to explain the behaviour of an individual. Why: the quantity of energy used in the behaviour is one of the determining factors that help to identify the underlying motive, i. e. : intensity/arousal, persistence, choices. Mechanistic model: applies to any living organism. Instinctive behaviour; we do not choose to do these things, we did not learn them, we are born with this behavioural response built in. Drives responses from within : i. e. : infant sucking response, fight or flight response, instinctive attachment (imprinting), needs are a hydraulic model.