PSYCH101 Lecture Notes - Rapid Eye Movement Sleep, Psychoactive Drug, Delta Wave

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16 Oct 2011

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Chapter 7
Consciousness - our awareness of ourselves and our environment
Cognitive neuroscience - the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with our mental
Dual processing - the principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate
conscious and unconscious tracks
Selective attention - the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus
Inattentional blindness - failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed somewhere
Change blindness - failing to notice changes in the environment
Chapter 8
Circadian rhythm - the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24-hour cycle
REM Sleep - rapid eye movement sleep, a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly
occur. Muscles are relaxed but other body systems are active
Sleep Stages
90 minute, 5 stage cycle
Stage 1 you experience images, hallucinations
Relax for 20 minutes in stage 2
Few minutes to go to 3 and then 4, brain emits delta waves which last for 30 mins
Alpha waves - the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state
Sleep - periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness - as distinct from unconsciousness resulting
from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation
Hallucinations - false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual
Delta waves - the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep
Why do we sleep?
9 hours of sleep at night we awake refreshed, sustain better moods, and perform more efficient
and accurate work
5 hours of sleep at night will make you feel terrible and uneasy as you are in debt of sleep.
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The Effects of Sleep Loss
Makes you fatter
increases the hunger-arousing hormone ghrelin and decreases its hunger-suppressing partner,
increases the stress hormone cortisol, which stimulates body to make fat
suppress immune cells that fight off viral infections and cancer
Alters metabolic and hormonal functioning in ways that mimic aging and are conductive to
hypertension and memory impairment
Irritability, slowed performance, impaired creativity, concentration, and communication
What is sleep's function?
Sleep protects
Sleep helps us recuperate - restore and repair brain tissues
Sleep is for making memories - restoring and rebuilding our fading memories of the day's
Sleep also feeds creative thinking - dreams have inspired noteworthy literary, artistic, and
scientific achievements
Sleep may play a role in the growth process - the pituitary gland releases a growth hormone
Sleep Disorders
Insomnia - recurring problems in falling or staying asleep
Narcolepsy - a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks, The sufferer may lapse
directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times.
Sleep Apnea - a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and
repeated momentary awakenings
Night terrors - a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified;
unlike nightmares, night terrors occur during stage 4 sleep, within 2 or 3 hours of falling asleep, and are
seldom remembered
Dreams - a sequence of images, emotions, and thought passing through a sleeping person's mind.
Dreams are notable for their hallucinatory imagery. discontinuities and incongruities. and for the
dreamer's delusional acceptance of the content and later difficulties remembering it
Manifest content - according to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream
Latent Content - according to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream
Why we dream?
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To satisfy our own wishes
To file away memories
To develop and preserve neural pathways
To make sense of neural static
To reflect cognitive development
REM Rebound - the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation (created by
repeated reawakening during REM sleep)
Chapter 10
Psychoactive Drugs - a chemical substance that alters perception and moods
Tolerance - the diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of drug, requiring the user to take
longer and larger doses before experiencing the drug's effect
Withdrawal - the discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug
Physical Dependence - a physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms
when the drug is discontinued
Psychological dependence - a psychological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions
Addiction - compulsive drug craving and use, despite adverse consequences
Myths about addiction
1. Addictive drugs quickly corrupt; for example, morphine taken to control pain is powerfully
addictive and often leads to heroin abuse
2. Addictions cannot be overcome voluntarily; therapy is required
3. We can extend the concept of addiction to cover not just drug dependencies, but a whole
spectrum of repetitive, pleasure-seeking behaviours
Psychoactive Drugs
Depressants - drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow
body functions
Alcohol - in large amounts it's a depressant, in small amounts it's a stimulant
Disinhibition - increases harmful tendencies
Slowed Neural Processing - Reactions slow, speech slurs, skilled performance
Memory Disruption
Reduced Self Awareness and Self control
Expectancy Effects
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