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October 5th Lecture Notes highly deatailed notes about the eye and its functions.

Course Code
Colin Mac Leod

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October 5th 2010
Retinal Receptors
-> Rods: retinal receptors that detect shading of black, white & grey. 125 milli
on; many to one
-> Cones: retinal receptors that detect colours; concentrated in the fovea (cent
re). 6 million ; one to one.
Eye Movements
Saccade: movement of the eye (
); takes about ¼ second (250ms); blind
Fixation: stabilized eye once stopped; lasts about ¼ second; processing visually
Processing light:
->see light from 380-760 nanometers (violet to red)
->can detect 3 aspects of light;
-hue (colour)
-intensity (brightness)
-saturation (purity; saturated = 1 colour)
Processing Colour:
-> Trichromat theory : types of cones detect 3 different wavelengths. (normal co
lour vision)
->opponent process theory; 2 types of ganglion cells encode colour
-red/green and yellow/blue
-fast firing = red or yellow .
->colour blindness; 5% of males; usually red/green
- protanopia: lack of photo pigments for red cones; green instead; read
appears to be darker (less intense)
-deuteranopia: lack of photo pigments for green cones; red instead; gree
n darker
-tritanopia; 1 in 10,000 (not sex linked); loss of blue cones; see in re
ds and greens
Visual Perception
The Gestalt Psychologists
- Kurt Koffka
- Wolfgang Kohler
- Max Wertheimer
its not what you saw its what you think about what you see
Thought they could set up a set of laws on how we see the laws
1) Gestalt Grouping
- proximity; elements closest to each other belong to the same figure
- similarity; elements similar to each other belong to the same figure
- closure; elements
form the figure are seen as part of the figure
and filled in
-good continuation; when multiple interpretations of elements exist the
simplest will be preferred
Pattern Recognition
-> templates: patterns used to perceive objects or shapes via a process of compa
->prototypes: idealized patterns used to perceive objects or shapes y a process
of comparison
->distinctive features: critical characteristics for distinguishing an object fr
om other objects (either as images or as lists)
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