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Lecture

PSYCH101 Lecture Notes - Abstract Logic, Centrism, Frontal Lobe


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH101
Professor
Richard Ennis

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Module 14
PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT
During infancy and childhood, how do the brain and motor skills develop?
Brain
In womb, the developing brain formed nerve cells at an explosive rate
The cortex overproduces neurons
On the day you were born, you had most of the brain cells you would ever have
Age 3-6,most rapid growth was the frontal lobes which enabled rational planning eg.
Preschoolers able to develop the ability to control their behaviour and attention
Last cortical area to developthe association areas ( thinking, memory, language)
Fiber pathways supporting language and agility proliferate into puberty. After which a pruning
process shuts down excess connections and strengthens others
Severe deprivation or abuse can retard development, ample parental experiences of talking and
reading will help sculpt neural connections
Genetic growth=inborn; experience can influence the development of the individual
Motor
Brain enables physical coordination
Physical (motor) development is universal
However individual differences in timing
Genes play a major role and motor development identical twins typically begin sitting up
and walking on nearly the same day
Maturation including rapid developments of the cerebellum at the back of the brain creates
our readiness to learn walking about at the age of one or other physical skills such as
bladder control
Maturation and infant the and memory
What the conscious mind does not know and cannot express the words, the nervous system
somehow remembers.
Earliest memories seldom predate our 3rd b-day
Cognitive Development
From the perspective of Piaget and of today’s researchers, how does a child’s mind develop?
Cognition
Refers to all mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and
communicating

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Role of Jean Piaget
Believe child’s mind develops through a series of states, in an upward march from the new
born\s simple reflexes to the adult’s abstract of reasoning power
Idea was that the driving force behind our intellectual progression is an unceasing struggle to
make sense of our experiences
Maturing brain builds schemas (concept of framework that organizes and interprets information)
concepts or mental molds into which poor into our experiencesby adulthood we have built
countless schemas, ranging from cats and dogs to our concept of
Believed that has children construct the understandings while interacting with the world they
experience spirits of change, followed by greater stability as they move from one cognitive
plateau to the next
How do we use an adjust our schemas?
1. Piaget say that we assimilate new experienceswe interpret them in terms of our current
understanding (schemas) eg. Schema of cowtoddler may call all 4 legged animals as cows
2. As we interact with the world, we adjust or accommodate (adapting to our current
understanding to incorporate new information)our schemas to incorporate information
provided by a new experiences eg. Child soon learns that the original cow schema is too broad
and accommodates by refining the category
What are the 4 stages of cognitive development according to Piaget?
1. Sensorimotor Stage
Birth to age 2
Experiencing the world though senses and actions (looking, hearing, touching, mouthing and
grasping)
Lack object permanence (younger than 6 months seldom understand things continue to exist
when they are out of sight
Stranger anxiety
2. Preoperational Stage
2-7 age
Too young to perfrom mental operations
Lacks conservationthe principle that quantity remains the same despite changes in
shape eg. Child with a tall , narrow glass of milk and a short, wide glass of milk
Representing things with words and images
Using intuitive rather than logical reasoning
Ego-centrism
Pretend play
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