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Lecture 2

Lecture 2 - Developmental Psychology Goes over the background of developmental (child) psychology as well as indepth on the different theories or affective, behavioural, and cognitive development.


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH101
Professor
Richard Ennis
Lecture
2

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DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY
Lecture Outline
Background: The Industrial Revolution
Affective Development: Attachment Theory
1950's: Two Theories of Attachment
Harry Harlow
Basic Research Design and Results
Evolutionary Function of Attachment
Mary Ainsworth
The Strange Situation
Social Functions of Attachment
Behavioural Development: Social Learning Theory
Albert Bandura
Efficiency of Social Learning
Processes of Social Learning
Attention, Retention, Motoric Reproduction, Motivation
Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget
Overview of Piaget's Theory
Schema
Equilibration and Disequilibration
Assimilation and Accommodation
Stages of Cognitive Development
Sensorimotor Stage
Preoperational Stage
Concrete Operational Stage
Formal Operational Stage

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Lecture Notes
Developmental psychology = child psychology
A
Attachment Theory:
o How we develop feelings for other people
o How the connection develops in a newborn
A
Industrial Revolution: 18-1900’s
o Rapid technological advance
o A lot being made -> very available
o Not a good time to be a child
In privledged classes, you’re OK
Lower classes = tough life
o Start working till death at age 12
Young as 6 in mines (planting dynamite with small fingers)
Clean under textile machine
Job was 6 days a week, min 10 hours daily, 6 hours Saturday
o Kids had nothing to look forward to
Child labour laws started to change their lives
2 people convinced the world that children are special: Freud and Piaget
Only saw children as small adults, only difference is in size
o The caterpillar notion: caterpillars = children
Although kids look like us, they have their own needs
Freud and Piaget presented the world with the sapling ides -> growth in a child is a list,
getting bigger
o Growth has distinct stages
o NOT a straight line, many steps:
NOT: RIGHT:
A
Attachment theory
50s and 60s it was behaviourism
o Very anal, hated contradictions
Big behaviourist: Harry Harlow
o White rats were widely used in labs
o Harry used reces monkeys (he was rich)
Very good animal, close to humans
Bred your own
Took newborn from mother after birth (animals DO NOT make good parents
in captivity)
Animals became attached to diapers used to cover bottom of cage
A
Love in 50s and 60s: Freud’s idea
o Love is really a secondary emotion to sex

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First stage: mouth receives sexual pleasure (sucking in breast)
As a consequence to sex, child shows love
“mum gives a lot of sex = I love you”
A
Behaviourists: love is a secondary byproduct to FOOD
o Big person bringing good things to child
o Start showing favouritism, association -> love
A
Harlow thinks about monkeys
o Monkeys have fallen in love with their diapers
o Have been removed from a source of sex
Lab assistants bring food, monkeys don’t love assistants
Therefore, it’s love
Proposing love isn’t secondary to anything
o Could be a primary need in the form of attachment
o Monkeys, with this need, are attaching to diaper
Conducts arguably one of the most famous experiments
o Provides monkeys with 2 surrogate mothers
Wire and cloth mother
Wire mother fitted with bottle -> monkey should love this mother
Results of Harlow’s Research: (1958)
INDEPENDENT VARIABLE
DEPENDENT VARIABLES
Infants Fed by Cloth Mother
Infants Fed by Wire Mother
Contact time with cloth vs wire mother
Cloth . 18 hr/day
Wire . 2 hr/day
Cloth . 18 hr/day
Wire . 2 hr/day
Reaction to frightening object
Run & cling to cloth mother
Run & cling to cloth mother
Reaction to being placed in strange
environment with both mothers
Run & cling to cloth mother; then
gradually explore using cloth mother
as secure base
Run & cling to cloth mother; then
gradually explore using cloth mother
as secure base
Reaction to being placed in strange
environment with neither mother
Immobilized, crying, crouching,
thumb-sucking
Immobilized, crying, crouching,
thumb-sucking
Reaction to being placed in strange
environment with wire mother only
Immobilized, crying, crouching,
thumb-sucking
Immobilized, crying, crouching,
thumb-sucking
Ran experiments to see which is the protector
From safe base (cloth mom) able to explore
If took monkey with wire mother and put in strange room, they become immobilized
o With cloth mother they were able to explore (confidence!)
o True even with no mother, even true for the wire mother who had given all the food
Harry demonstrated we have an evolved emotional bonding to primary caregiver
o Maternal love
o First love of our life
Next step was to see if the same was true for human babies: Mary Ainsworth
A
Mary wants to replicate Harry’s experiment with kids
o Needs to be ethical though
o Creates a “Strange Situation”
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