Lecture 8 - Motivation Basic Model and Concepts Mechanistic Approach The Internal Push: Instincts, Needs and Drives The External Pull: Incentives Humanistic Approach Hierarchy of Needs (Maslow) Expectancy Approach Expectancy-Value Theory

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Published on 16 Oct 2011
School
University of Waterloo
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH101
Professor
MOTIVATION
Lecture Outline
Basic Model and Concepts
Mechanistic Approach
The Internal Push:
Instincts, Needs and Drives
The External Pull:
Incentives
Humanistic Approach
Hierarchy of Needs
(Maslow)
Expectancy Approach
Expectancy-Value Theory
(Murray)
Self-Efficacy Theory
(Bandura)
Cognitive Approach
Cognitive Evaluation Theory
(Deci)
Goal Setting Theory
(Locke & Latham)
Social Approach
Social Identity Theory
(Tajfel & Turner)
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LECTURE NOTES
Don’t actually see motivation, observe it’s presence by inferring on their behaviours
Able to determine types or degrees of motivation
A
How to find motivation
Is there arousal? What’s the level?
o Energy level can show how motivated they are
o Infer prescence of motivation
Persistence
o Despite frustration you’ll go though anything to get there/do something
o People dealing with blockage but continue to go to their goal = motivation
Choices they make
o Alternatives we select show motivation
Eg. Free time and you go bowling = you like bowling or there’s a reason
behind you going (like your friends are going)
More than just biological earnings
A
Mechanistic Approach
Humans, like any other animal, driven by same reasons other animals are (Pavlov’s dogs)
See us as robotic
Some kind of motive somes from within, propels us to engage in a kind of behaviour
o INSTINCTS
o Do arrive in this world with instincts (sucking your thumb)
o Theory we have social instincts too
Aggression
May lie dormant until activated by cues
o In order to call something an instinct:
1) Need to see it in all members of the species
2) must appear without prior learning
When it comes to social motives, instincts don’t really help
NO -> needing attachment isn’t an instinct
Researchers went to calling things needs instead of instincts
o Harry Harlow’s monkeys
o Filling certain needs -> motivation
As needs remain unfulfilled, there’s a force that starts to work on us
o Called a drive
o Engage in certain kinds of behaviour
o Eg. Go bowling
Self-worth -> bring successful
Affiliation -> where your friends are
A
NEEDS CREATE DRIVES
Behaviour directed to satisfying need
What are the needs? Various theorists propose different needs
A
Henry Murray
First guy to really explore needs
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Document Summary

Don"t actually see motivation, observe it"s presence by inferring on their behaviours. Able to determine types or degrees of motivation. What"s the level: energy level can show how motivated they are. Persistence: despite frustration you"ll go though anything to get there/do something, people dealing with blockage but continue to go to their goal = motivation. Choices they make: alternatives we select show motivation. Free time and you go bowling = you like bowling or there"s a reason behind you going (like your friends are going) Humans, like any other animal, driven by same reasons other animals are (pavlov"s dogs) Some kind of motive somes from within, propels us to engage in a kind of behaviour. Instincts: do arrive in this world with instincts (sucking your thumb, theory we have social instincts too. May lie dormant until activated by cues. 1) need to see it in all members of the species. When it comes to social motives, instincts don"t really help.

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