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Lecture 8

Lecture 8 - Motivation Basic Model and Concepts Mechanistic Approach The Internal Push: Instincts, Needs and Drives The External Pull: Incentives Humanistic Approach Hierarchy of Needs (Maslow) Expectancy Approach Expectancy-Value Theory

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Richard Ennis

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Lecture Outline
Basic Model and Concepts
Mechanistic Approach
The Internal Push:
Instincts, Needs and Drives
The External Pull:
Humanistic Approach
Hierarchy of Needs
Expectancy Approach
Expectancy-Value Theory
Self-Efficacy Theory
Cognitive Approach
Cognitive Evaluation Theory
Goal Setting Theory
(Locke & Latham)
Social Approach
Social Identity Theory
(Tajfel & Turner)
Don’t actually see motivation, observe it’s presence by inferring on their behaviours
Able to determine types or degrees of motivation
How to find motivation
Is there arousal? What’s the level?
o Energy level can show how motivated they are
o Infer prescence of motivation
o Despite frustration you’ll go though anything to get there/do something
o People dealing with blockage but continue to go to their goal = motivation
Choices they make
o Alternatives we select show motivation
Eg. Free time and you go bowling = you like bowling or there’s a reason
behind you going (like your friends are going)
More than just biological earnings
Mechanistic Approach
Humans, like any other animal, driven by same reasons other animals are (Pavlov’s dogs)
See us as robotic
Some kind of motive somes from within, propels us to engage in a kind of behaviour
o Do arrive in this world with instincts (sucking your thumb)
o Theory we have social instincts too
May lie dormant until activated by cues
o In order to call something an instinct:
1) Need to see it in all members of the species
2) must appear without prior learning
When it comes to social motives, instincts don’t really help
NO -> needing attachment isn’t an instinct
Researchers went to calling things needs instead of instincts
o Harry Harlow’s monkeys
o Filling certain needs -> motivation
As needs remain unfulfilled, there’s a force that starts to work on us
o Called a drive
o Engage in certain kinds of behaviour
o Eg. Go bowling
Self-worth -> bring successful
Affiliation -> where your friends are
Behaviour directed to satisfying need
What are the needs? Various theorists propose different needs
Henry Murray
First guy to really explore needs

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MOTIVATION Lecture OutlineBasic Model and ConceptsMechanistic ApproachThe Internal Push Instincts Needs and DrivesThe External Pull IncentivesHumanistic ApproachHierarchy of Needs MaslowExpectancy ApproachExpectancyValue Theory MurraySelfEfficacy Theory BanduraCognitive ApproachCognitive Evaluation Theory DeciGoal Setting Theory LockeLathamSocial ApproachSocial Identity Theory TajfelTurner
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