Lecture 7: Motivation
Basic Model and Concepts
Internal Push: Instincts, Needs, and Drives.
External Pull: Incentives
Hierarchy of Needs (Maslow)
Expectancy-Value theory (Murray)
Self-Efficacy Theory (Bandura)
Cognitive Evaluation Theory (Deci)
Goal Setting Theory (Locke and Latham)
Social Identity Theory (Tajfel and Turner)
Motivation is the theories used to explain the motion of humans.
We are not as predictable as say, the theory of gravity. If it were possible to predict a
person’s actions even 30% of the time, the theory discovered would be highly impressive.
•Motivation is an inferred variable. It is used to infer a psychological
state which has gone to explain the behaviour of an individual.
Person Environment Outcomes
•The quantity of energy used in the behaviour is one of the determining
factors that help to identify the underlying motive.
oi.e.: Intensity/arousal, persistence, choices.
•applies to any living organism
•Instinctive behaviour; we do not choose to do these things, we did not
learn them, we are born with this behavioural response built in.
“Drives responses from within”.
oi.e.: infant sucking response, fight or flight response, instinctive
•Needs are a hydraulic model. It depends on the needs of your body
whether or not you act on these behaviours (pressure or force of the
oi.e.: need for water/food.
oWhen the need increases, the drive increases.