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Developmental Psychology This is the lecture outline, as provided by Dr. Ennis, with my own annotations.

Course Code
Richard Ennis

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Lecture Outline
TA Info: Colleen Merrifield PAS 3204 Thursday 10:30-11:30
Background: The Industrial Revolution
Around 1900s
Most dramatic technological advancements in our history
Manufacturing takes off, particularly in England (also Canada and the US)
Lowest point of the history of Children
oChildren, especially in England begin to suffer a terrible life
oNo universal educational program
oWould begin starting at the age of 6 (intense labour)
oGiven some of the most dangerous and dirty jobs
oSerious injury and death were common
oPeople viewed children as miniature adults (sapling theory)
Believed children only grow in size and do not develop mentally
oSome people did not believe the sapling theory and developed the caterpillar theory
Children are unique creatures, not small adults
At some point on their development children suddenly became an adult
Sigmund Freud saw Childhood as going through different psychosexual stages
Jean Piaget saw childhood as going through different neurological stages (thinking
oAround 1930s child labour laws come into effect
oUniversal Education is developed
(A) Affective Development: Attachment Theory (How children develop the emotion of love)
1950's: Two Theories of Attachment
Study how children develop an emotional bond with their caregiver (usually mother)
Sigmund Freud
oSecondary to a Primary instinct on a part of the instinct: Sex
oChild beings in the Oral Psychosexual Development (Breastfeeding)
Mommy I want some booby sex
oChild develops an affection because of the sex
Behaviorist theories
oAlso argued that love is secondary to a primary factor
oThe child becomes conditioned to enjoy the presence of his mother, because of the care the
mother provides
oThis can be interpreted as love
Nobody argued that love was a Primary factor
Harry Harlow (U of Wisconsin)
Strict behaviorist
Did research with monkeys
Primates are separated from their mother immediately after birth (because in captivity mother often kills
her babies)
Money babies would not want to give up their used diapers
No learning was taking place (they were always attached to the poo-poo diaper)
Harlow thought that babies may be pre-wired to form an emotional connection with someone from their
own species (a creature in their environment)
oThis theory made Evolutionary sense
oHarlow began to think that love may be a Primary emotion, as opposed to Secondary
oDiapers may represent mothers to the monkey infants
Basic Research Design and Results
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Gives monkeys two surrogate mothers
oWire mother
Has a bottle (provides nourishment or sexual gratification)
Has a lamp (provides heat)
oCloth mother
A snake is thrown in (danger) or the monkey (and mommies) are moved
oWhere does the infant go for protection?
Wire mother should be preferred if other theories hold (Freud and Behaviorist)
Evolutionary Function of Attachment
See results in overhead
Freudian and Behaviorist theory is successfully disproved
An emotional bond with a mother of the same species is a Primary need
Is this also true of humans?
oHarlow thinks so
Mary Ainsworth
American psychologist
Done 100s of research and studies in Attachment Theory (eventually overcomplicating it to death)
The Strange Situation
Experimented with mobile but not walking infants (6-9 months)
Mother goes to a designated chair (behind two-way glass is Mary with a camera and a cup of coffee)
Attractive toys are placed away from the child
See results in overhead
The mother is a base of security and the children show trust towards their mothers
Two thirds of relationships had a Secure Attachment (find security in mommy and trust her)
One third of relationships are different (Insecure Attachment Patterns)
oAmbivalent Attachment Style (Hesitant, unable to decided)
The child does not seem to have the same trust with the mother
The child is insecure
Children display hysterical crying when left alone (or alone with stranger)
Children may punish mother during reunion (slap dat bitch)
oAvoidant Attachment Style (Like two ships passing in the night… wtf…)
Not dependent on mother
Does not show love (or preference) towards mother
Some children do not reunite with mother at all
The children sometimes go back to get her attention and then turn away from her (talk to
the hand)
No pattern can be observed
Demonstrates that relationships are primarily based on trust, not love
Mother must also trust the baby
Children are predisposed to different attachment styles
There is a tendency towards trusting relationships as we age (with other humans)
What happens when two attachment styles come together?
Social Functions of Attachment
Does the first relationship with the mother/caregiver serve as a blueprint for future relationships?
Examine how different combinations of Attachment Styles interact
Results below
Ambivalent: negative view of self, positive view of others
Avoidant: positive view of self, negative view of others
No Avoidant infants are found in Japan
52% of German infants are Avoidant
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