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Lecture 4

PSYCH 101 Lecture 4: ONLINE Week 4 / Module 4 - Developmental Psychology 1

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH101
Professor
Paul Wehr
Lecture
4

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Module 4 - Developmental Psychology I
Lecture Note
Classical Conditioning
Pavlov and his dogs
Pavlov and his dogs
-interested in studying spit (particularly dog spit)
-had test tubes hooked to saliva glands of dogs to collect spit
-noticed that after a few days of giving them food, every time he walked up to the dogs
to give them food, they would start salivating
-wanted to understand why they were salivating before seeing the food
-introduced a neutral stimulus (tone)
before: neutral stimulus produces no salivation
unconditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented just after the neutral stimulus,
produces an unconditioned response
after: food is associated with the tone so they begin salivating upon hearing the
tone, neutral stimulus produces the unconditioned response by itself -> becoming a
conditioned stimulus
What is learning and unlearning
-learning is the association of a conditioned stimulus or neutral stimulus with an
unconditioned stimulus to the extent that the conditioned stimulus produces the
unconditioned response
-he did not realize what learning could come from this
John Watson
-early American behaviourists
-wanted to study what is observable and used Pavlovian principles to teach
-believed he could teach children anything
-taught a child (Albert) to fear anything soft and furry
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Module 4 - Developmental Psychology I
Lecture Note
-idea was that you could teach something to someone which did not make any sense
What is Learning and Unlearning
generalization: occurs when the conditioned stimulus is changed slightly and the
conditioned response still happens
screaming and crying is a conditioned response (something that can be observed),
at first they used a mouse and he became afraid of the mouse, then he began to be
afraid of anything that was furry and soft (generalized)
discrimination: occurs when the conditioned stimulus is changed and the conditioned
response doesn’t happen (starting to unlearn)
would have happened if Albert was only afraid of the rat, but not bunnies (could
make a distinction between the two)
can teach this process by only presenting the unconditioned stimulus with the rat
and never with the bunny
extinction: occurs when the conditioned stimulus, now the unconditioned response, no
longer produces the response
should eventually happen if the unconditioned stimuli is no longer paired with the
conditioned stimuli
Problems with Classical Conditioning
-only behaviour that can be affected is one that the organism (dog or Little Albert)
would normally do
-cannot get the organism to do new behaviours
Operant Conditioning
Skinner and his pigeons
-allows for behaviours to happen that would not naturally occur
-Skinner proposed that any behaviour that anyone engages in has been learnt through
operant conditioning
What is Operant Conditioning?
-Skinner proposed that behaviour that is rewarded will occur more often in the future
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