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Lecture 3

PSYCH101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Eardrum, Oval Window, Semicircular Canals


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH101
Professor
n.a
Lecture
3

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Behavioural neuroscience II
THE SENSES
Vision,
parts of teye are corne, lens, iris, pupil, retina, and fovea
The image is flippe don ther eina so its upside down, and focea is where we can s color and details
well. The optin nerve goes into the rain and takes signls of retina to brain
The retina has 3 types of cells
Gangilion cell ( closest to pupil)
Bipolar cell
Visual processors called cone ( color) and rod ( black and white)
Neural impulse occurs when light hits cones and rods an visual processing occurs.
The cortex allows us to understand
Optic nerve travels to optic chiam and tract and into thalamus and raches visual cortex
-bisions from eyes goes in oppositde sides in brain
visual cortex turns light into shapes –feautre detetion.
Feature detection
In cortex there are nidicidual cells that respond to lines at various angles
Take symbols of lines and create a pattern
Cells converge to creat our perception of what we see
Hgher level cells provide even more perception
All of this happens vistually instantaneously
Done with massice parallel processing of nifo
Not completely nderstod as tohwo the visual cortex organizes this info
Color vision, this is hwere the young Helmholtz trichromatic theory is used
Comes from studing the retnia
Three types of cones in the retina, which respond to three types of light, primary coloours,
red, green, and blue
All other colors can be made from these three
Could the specifity of the cones produce diffn colors?
Consistent with color bind
oRed and gree,-problem with either green or red cones
oBlue and green-no distinction between blue and green cones
Theory works will until we talk about the color yellow
oBrain responds to yellow as a primary color
THE OPPONENT PROCESS THEORY OF COLOR VISION
There area actually three sets of opposing pairs of colors
If you stare at something green, yellow and black, and if you look at a blank page, you get
the british flag with blue, white and red
Why?? The neurons associated with tose colors wll fire, but they will eventually wear out
The lack of firing is now interpreted as f the red, blue and white are firing thus creating the
after image effect
Afterimage effect is when the brain thinks that the reverse colours are firing
Both of these theories are probably tue but is diffn areas of the brain.
The trichromatic view, is at the reinal leve, you hve three types of cones which work together to
produce all the dfferent colours
The opponent-process view is truin in the thalamus, higher up in the brain as it is processing
things.
Hearing
The parts of the ear, outer ear, middle ear and inner ear
Outer ear-pinna, and auditory canal,
Middle ear-ear drum, responds to sound waves, bones of middle ear, transmit sounds mechanically
Inner ear-bones push on oval window of cochlea, and semicircular canals are responsible for
balance. Ochlea turns physical stimular into neural impulses. Coming out of the cochlea is the
auditory nerve
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