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PSYCH253 Lecture Notes - Social Identity Theory, Realistic Conflict Theory, Implicit Stereotype

Course Code
Steve Spencer

of 4
*Survey Finding - Past and Present
*Dramatic decrease in overt expression of prejudice on surveys
*Subtler Forms of Prejudice – are still common, still exist
*• The Early Studies
* • Sagar & Schofield - Pencil poking study – poking the kid in front of you; when
a black boy poking a white, seen as aggressive act; white boy poking black
boy, seen as getting attention.
* • Aversive Racisim – relevant*; argument – 2 diff conflicting motives that affect
people when making evaluations (almost all people internalize that they
should treat people equally) on the other hand (almost everybody is exposed
to steretyping and prejudice); people don’t want to be racist but they learned in
young age; when the siutuation is ambigious, they’ll stereotype
* • Helping Study – they can offer help or they can ask help
The Changing Face of Stereotyping
*Recent Studies
*Correll et al. (2003) Studies
- diff people standing in diff places, some holding a gun, a
wallet, cone, etc
Stimuli from Correll et al. (2003)
The Changing Face of Stereotyping (cont.)
*Recent Studies
*Correll et al. (2003) Studies
*Sinclair & Kunda (1999) – teaching evaluations;
-average grade of the class; teaching evaluation and compare
to men and women
- women who give low grades really pay for having a really low
teaching evaluation
-female and male managers; black and white respondents think that they’ll
have an evaluation for co-op
Sinclair & Kunda
The Changing Face of Stereotyping (cont.)
*Recent Studies
*Correll et al. (2003) Studies –activation of stereotypes; it is easy for
stereotypes to be on people’s minds
*Sinclair & Kunda (1999)
*Three motives that influence stereotype activation and application
*Self-image maintenance – when a person said somethong wrong to you,
you can easily stereotype that people too (at a very conscious level)
*Motivation to avoid prejudice – dominant motive; we don’t want to be
prejudice (over 90% of people), whenpeople are motivated not to
prejudice; reduces both
*Comprehension goals – goal to understand other peoplecoz we’re trying to
understand other people, that’s part of what brings stereotype in our
minds; don’t affects the activation link; don’t create more prejudice;
increases activation
Changing Prejudice and Stereotyping
*Explicit Stereotyping (stereotyping with full awareness; controlled by motivation
and effort) can be controlled with motivation and effort
* Implicit Stereotyping (unaware) is much more difficult to change - more work is
needed; we ll have this potential evil in our minds
*How to get rid of stereotypes? Depressing question in research 9little change
among recent research)
*Example of intergroup contact – positive interaction = diminishing implicit
Motivational Theories of Prejudice
Realistic Conflict Theory
Sherif’s Robber’s Cave Experiment
Social Identity Theory
Minimal Group Experiment
Minimal Group Effect
Motivational Theories of Prejudice
Prejudice and Self-Image Maintenance
Fein & Spencer -Jewish American Princess Study
Self-Image Threat and Negative Evaluation of a Stereotyped Target
Cognitive Theories of Stereotyping