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PSYCH257 Lecture Notes - Substance Dependence, Depressant, Substance Abuse

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Uzma Rehman

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Chapter 11: Substance-Related Disorders
Perspectives on Substance-Related
Disorders: An Overview
*The Nature of Substance-Related Disorders
*Problems related to the use and abuse of psychoactive substances
*Produce wide-ranging physiological, psychological, and behavioural effects
*Some Important Terms and Distinctions
*Substance abuse vs. substance dependence
*Tolerance vs. withdrawal
Type of problem
*Substance Abuse
*Substance Dependence:
Substance Abuse Criteria
A) A maladaptive pattern of substance use leading to clinically significant impairment or
distress, as manifested by any of the following criteria within a 12 month
1) Recurrent substance use resulting in failure to fulfill major role obligations at
work, home, or school
2) Recurrent substance use in situations in which it is physically hazardous
3) Recurrent substance-related legal problems
4) cont’d use despite recurrent interpersonal/social consequence
B) Never met criteria for substance dependence for this class of substance
*Does not apply to nicotine or caffeine
Substance Dependence Criteria
A) Three or more of the following occurring at any time during a within a 12 month
*Taken in larger quantities or over a longer period than intended
*Persistent unsuccessful efforts to cut down
*Great deal of time spent trying to acquire the substance
*Important social, occupational, or recreational activities are given up or reduced
because of substance use
*Cont’d use despite recurrent interpersonal/social problems
Specify with/without physiological dependence
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Physiological Responses to Extended Use
*Tolerance – increasing amount of substance necessary for the same high
*Withdrawal – physical problems follow not taking substance
Perspectives on Substance-Related Disorders: An Overview
*Five Main Categories of Substances
*Depressants – result in behavioural sedation (e.g., alcohol, sedative, anxiolytic
*Stimulants – increase alertness and elevate mood (e.g., cocaine, nicotine,
*Opiates – primarily produce analgesia and euphoria; pain reduction (e.g., heroin,
morphine, codeine)
*Hallucinogens – alter sensory perception (e.g., marijuana, LSD)
*Other drugs of abuse – include inhalants, anabolic steroids, medications
Alcohol Use Disorders
*Psychological and Physiological Effects of Alcohol
*Central Nervous system depressant
*Influences several neurotransmitter systems, but mainly GABA (affects anxiety
*Effects of Chronic Alcohol Use
What Affects Blood Alcohol Level?
*Weight – light people are more responsive than heavy
*Sex – females are more responsive than males
*Physiological predispositions – family tendencies
*Frequency of usage – tolerance
*Have you eaten recently? Peak intoxication:
*.5 – 2 hours with empty stomach
*1-6 hours with full stomach
Increased Risk of Relapse
*Younger age at onset – started drinking earlier
*More extensive substance involvement
*Antisocial behavior
*Comorbid disorders
*Less involvement in school or work
*Less social support
Sedative, Hypnotic, or Anxiolytics
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