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PSYCH257 Lecture Notes - Developmental Psychopathology, Neuroscience, Eric Kandel

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Uzma Rehman

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Chapter 2: An Integrative Approach to Psychopathology
Uni-dimensional versus Multidimensional Approaches to Psychopathology
Multidimensional Models of Abnormal Behaviour
*Biological factors (genetics, physiology, neurobiology)
*Learning factors (conditioning, modeling)
*Emotional factors
*Cognitive factors
*Social factors
*Cultural factors
Genetic contributions to Psychopathology
*Available data suggest that genetic factors contribute to almost all psychological
disorders but account for less than half of this explanation
*Most disorders are influenced by multiple genes, not caused by a single gene
*Important to focus on the interaction between genetic and environmental influences
Psychology and the
Nature-Nurture Debate
The Interaction of Genetic and Environmental Effects
*Eric Kandel and gene-environment interactions
*The Diathesis-Stress Model
*Reciprocal Gene-Environment Model
*Non-Genomic Inheritance of Behaviour
*Genes are not the whole story
The Diathesis-Stress Model - Evidence
*Caspi et al. 2003
Evidence for the Reciprocal Gene- Environment Model
*Genetic influences may increase the probability that an individual will experience
stressful life events
Neural Plasticity and the Implications for Psychopathology
The Field of Neuroscience: Implications for Psychopathology
*Relations between brain and abnormal behavior
*Experience can change brain structure and function
*Therapy can change brain structure and function
*Medications and psychotherapy
Life-Span and Developmental
Influences Over Psychopathology
*Life-Span Developmental Perspective
*Addresses developmental changes (Kolb, Gibb, & Gorny, 2003 –University of
*Such changes influence and constrain what is normal and abnormal
*The Principle of Equifinality
*Concept in developmental psychopathology
*Several paths to a given outcome
*Paths may operate differentially at different developmental stages