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Lecture

Psych 257 Chap 1 Psych 257 Psychopathology Barlow et Al: Abnormal Psychology 2nd CDN edition Chapter 1

4 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH257
Professor
Uzma Rehman

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What is a Psychological Disorder?
-Psychological Disorder: Dysfunction within an individual;
-associated with distress /impaired functioning and atypical/culturally unexpected response
Psychological Dysfunction
-dysfunction: breakdown in cognitive, emotional or behavioural functioning (eg. Fainting at sight of
blood)
-some people experience mild breakdown w/o being dysfunctional,
-hence, dysfunction is on a continuum (line) not as on/off categories
Personal Distress
-part of criteria: to be sad; but not the only criteria
-hence, dysfunction is usually extreme expressions of normal emotion
Atypical or Not Culturally Expected
-abnormal behaviour: acting differently from the norm, violating social norms
-but: this criteria has exceptions; eg. Eccentric people, celebrities, different cultures
-hence abnormal: if out of person’s control
-Szasz: Mental illness diagnosed by psychologists has fundamental difference
-uses subjective judgements (by the patient); doesn’t focus on objective (eg. Blood tests)
The Science of Psychopathology
-Psychopathology: the scientific study of psychological disorders
-usu. clinical/counseling psychologists w/ Ph.D. or PsyD;
-“psychologists” are regulated by psych boards; “psychotherapists” are not
-psychiatrists: need MD + 3-4 year residency; usual focus on biological treatments (not just drugs)
-psychiatric social workers/nurses: gain masters; deal with people with disorders
The Scientist-Practitioner
-adopted scientific methods to learn more about the nature of psychological disorders, causes, treating
-scientist-practioner: take a scientific approach to clinical work
-via staying up to date on new developments, evaluating own assessments, and own research
Clinical Description
-presenting problem: problem(s) that a patient first shows signs of.
-clinical description: combination of behaviours, thoughts, and feelings that make up a specific disorder
-prevalence: how disorder is different from normal behaviour
-incidence: stats on how many new cases occur at a certain time
-course: somewhat individual pattern that most disorders follow
-prognosis: anticipated course of disorder (long-term or time limited) and onset (time before symptoms)
Causation, Treatment, and Outcomes
-etiology: study of origins (of disorder); helps understand nature of disorder-> treatment
The Past: Historical Conceptions of Abnormal Behaviour
-3 models of thought for abnormal behaviour. Supernatural (old idea), biological, and psychological
The Supernatural Tradition
-idea: deviant behaviour perceived as evil, work of the devil etc.
Demons and Witches
-eg. 14th century; Treatments such as exorcism; 17th century; Salem Witch trials
Stress and Melancholy
-Insanity=natural phenomenon, caused via (curable) mental/emotional stress; rest,sleep, type treatment
Charles VI: The Mad King
-heavy mental stress due to running the kingdom; went mad; treatment via rest, relaxation

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Description
What is a Psychological Disorder Psychological Disorder Dysfunction within an individualassociated with distress impaired functioning and atypicalculturally unexpected response Psychological Dysfunction dysfunction breakdown in cognitive emotional or behavioural functioning eg Fainting at sight of bloodsome people experience mild breakdown wo being dysfunctional hence dysfunction is on a continuum line not as onoff categories Personal Distress part of criteria to be sad but not the only criteria hence dysfunction is usually extreme expressions of normal emotion Atypical or Not Culturally Expected abnormal behaviour acting differently from the norm violating social normsbut this criteria has exceptions eg Eccentric people celebrities different cultureshence abnormal if out of persons control Szasz Mental illness diagnosed by psychologists has fundamental differenceuses subjective judgements by the patient doesnt focus on objective eg Blood tests The Science of Psychopathology Psychopathology the scientific study of psychological disorders usu clinicalcounseling psychologists w PhD or PsyD psychologists are regulated by psych boards psychotherapists are not psychiatrists need MD34 year residency usual focus on biological treatments not just drugs psychiatric social workersnurses gain masters deal with people with disordersThe ScientistPractitioner adopted scientific methods to learn more about the nature of psychological disorders causes treating scientistpractioner take a scientific approach to clinical workvia staying up to date on new developments evaluating own assessments and own research Clinical Description presenting problem problems thata patient first shows signs of clinical description combination of behaviours thoughts and feelings that make up a specific disorderprevalence how disorder is different from normal behaviourincidence stats on how many new cases occur at a certain timecourse somewhat individual pattern that most disorders follow prognosis anticipated course of disorder longterm or time limited and onset time before symptoms Causation Treatment and Outcomes etiology study of origins of disorder helps understand nature of disorder treatment The Past Historical Conceptions of Abnormal Behaviour 3 models of thought for abnormal behaviour Supernatural old idea biological and psychological The Supernatural Tradition idea deviant behaviour perceived as evil work of the devil etc Demons and Witches ththeg 14 century Treatments such as exorcism 17 century Salem Witch trials Stress and Melancholy Insanitynatural phenomenon caused via curable mentalemotional stress restsleep type treatment Charles VI The Mad King heavy mental stress due to running the kingdom went mad treatment via rest relaxation
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