Psych 257 Chap 4 Psych 257 Psychopathology Barlow et Al: Abnormal Psychology 2nd CDN edition Chapter 4

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Published on 16 Oct 2011
School
University of Waterloo
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH257
Professor
Research Methods
-use scientific method: but: many aspects of human nature = inaccessible, must learn research methodology
Important Concepts
-questions: nature of problems people report; etiology of human behavior, how researches evaluate treatment
Basic Components of a research study
-hypothesis: educated guess -> research design: how to test hypothesis (with independent+dependent variables)
-hypothesis formation: look at phenomena and construct testable hypotheses (unambiguous words)
-specify independent/dependent variables
-internal validity: extent of confidence that I.V. is causing D.V. (no threats)
-External validity: how results relate to things outside study
-confound: factor occurring in a study that makes results uninterpretable
-to insure i.validity: use control groups, randomization,
-analogue models: create aspects in control similar to phenomenon under study (ex. Ask controls to binge eat)
-generalizability: extent to which results apply to everyone w/ a particular disorder, int & ex validity opposition
Statistical versus Clinical Significance
-statistical: significant in terms of difference b/w control and manipulation, concern w/ size of effect
-clinical: importance to people, ex. Do the findings actually help the overall goal
The Average Client
-patient uniformity myth: tendency to see all patients as homogenous group, not individually different
-lead researchers to make inaccurate generalizations about disorder and treatment
Studying Individual Cases
-case study method: intensively investigate one+ indiv’s who display behavioural/physical patterns
-yields great deal of info on person, family background, etc., stimulates further research using experiments
-problems: doesn’t have controls of experimental study, results usu. unique to person, can’t make conclusions
Research by Correlation
-correlation: statistical relationship b/w two variables; study phenomena just as they occur
-problems; doesn’t imply causation: various threats ex. directionality; correlations: range from 0-1.00
-positive corr.: both go up, negative corr.: one rises, on falls
Epidemiological Research
-epidemiology: study of incidence, distribution, and consequences of a particular problems in a population
-determine incidence: # of new cases, or prevalence: number of cases at any one time
Research by Experiment
-experiment: manipulation of an i.v. and observed effects; but can’t be sure experiments are internally valid
Group Experimental Designs
-diff. from correlation: researcher changes i.v. to observe group reaction: but what diff. would no treatment do?
-control groups: similarity to treatment group but w/o treatment, watch for placebo effect, thus placebo CG’s
-double-blind control: both participant and researchers are unsure who gets real treatment (usu. meds studies)
Comparative Treatment Research
-comparing diff. treatments to two or more comparable groups, via randomization
-must watch for process: evaluating biological mechanisms responsible for change
-and for outcome: positive and negative results of treatment
Single-Case Experimental Designs
-ex. B.F. Skinner: systematic study of indiv’s under variety of experimental conditions
-various strategies used to maximize internal validity
Repeated Measurements
-behaviour is measured several times instead of once, determine day-day variability of behavior
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Document Summary

Confound: factor occurring in a study that makes results uninterpretable. Hypothesis formation: look at phenomena and construct testable hypotheses (unambiguous words) Use scientific method: but: many aspects of human nature = inaccessible, must learn research methodology. Questions: nature of problems people report; etiology of human behavior, how researches evaluate treatment. Hypothesis: educated guess -> research design: how to test hypothesis (with independent+dependent variables) Internal validity: extent of confidence that i. v. is causing d. v. (no threats) External validity: how results relate to things outside study. Analogue models: create aspects in control similar to phenomenon under study (ex. Generalizability: extent to which results apply to everyone w/ a particular disorder, int & ex validity opposition. Statistical: significant in terms of difference b/w control and manipulation, concern w/ size of effect. Do the findings actually help the overall goal. Patient uniformity myth: tendency to see all patients as homogenous group, not individually different. Lead researchers to make inaccurate generalizations about disorder and treatment.

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