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Lecture

Psych 257 Chap 8 Psych 257 Psychopathology Barlow et Al: Abnormal Psychology 2nd CDN edition Chapter 8


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH257
Professor
Uzma Rehman

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Eating and Sleep Disorders
Eating Disorders: an overview
-bulimia nervosa: out-of-control eating binges followed by self-induced vomiting, laxatives, purging
-anorexia nervosa: eat nothing beyond minimal amounts of food
-chief characteristic: all-encompassing drive to be thin; high death rate due to disorder, suicide
-increase in rate of disorders is culturally specific; eg. US, Canada; strongest cause is sociocultural
Bulimia Nervosa
-most common psych disorder in university
Clinical Description
-eating large amounts of food more than normal (usu. junk food); out of control eating
-compensate with purging techniques (vomit, laxative, diuretics, excessive exercise,fasting)
-purging type: vomit/laxative etc, usu. younger, comorbidity w/ depression; non purging: exercise etc.
-medical consequences: salivary gland enlargement due to repeated vomiting -> chubby face
-eroded dental enamel, upset chemical balance of bodily fluid (eg. electrolye imbalance)
-> cardiac arrhythmia, renal failure, intestinal problem;
-assoc’d psych disorders: bulimics usu. present w/ anxiety, mood disorders; eg. 75% had anxiety disorder
-related to other behaviours suggesting poor impulse control: smoking, alcoholism, drug use
-bulimia: 10% w/n normal weight; usu. secretive of bulimic symptoms; ashamed of lack of control
Anorexia Nervosa
-morbid fear of gaining weight, dangerously low weight level, proud of control over eating,
Clinical Description
-bulimia nervosa: more common than anorexia; but overlap (bulemics have history of anorexia)
-anorexia: fear obesity, pursue thinness, overreport own body weight, severe caloric restriction+exercise
-anorexia: restricting type: diet to limit caloric intake; binge-eating/purging type: rely on purging
-never satisfied with weight, disturbed body image; seldom seek own treatment
-medical consequences: eg. amenorrhea: cessation of menstruation; controversial criterion in DSM-IV
-dry skin, brittle hair/nails, sensitive to cold temperature, cardiovascular problems
-associated psych disorders: anxiety/mood disorders; OCD frequently co-occurs; substance abuse
Binge-Eating Disorder
-distress due to binge eating w/o extreme compensatory behaviours
-20% of obese people in weight loss program; 50% of obese candidates for bariatric surgery
-either binge first before dieting (more serious, usu. more disorders); or diet then binge
-BED: may binge to alleviate anxious mood; show increased stress, negative affect, weight concerns
Statistics
-majority is women; white, upper-middle class; males: usu. homosexual/bisexual orientation
-age of onset: ~16-19 yrs; prevalence: 1.1% females, 0.1% males for bulimia nervosa
-anorexia: female; onset usu. adolescence ~13 yrs; 1.6% lifetime prevalence
-cross-cultural considerations: development in immigrants who move to western countries
-prevalence lower in back/asian N.A. females; frequent among aboriginals
-cultural diff. eg. china: slightly plump = sign of value; japan: fear of overweight lower than N.A.
-found: body image concerns worse in N.A. than india (same in thinness drive, body dissatisfaction)
-development considerations: anorexia/bulimia strongly related to development
-diff. patterns of physical development in girls/boys interact w/ cultural influences -> disorders
Causes
-other factors (bio/psych) do contribute but mostly social/cultural factors -> dev. Of eating disorder
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