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Lecture

Psych 257 Chap 10 Psych 257 Psychopathology Barlow et Al: Abnormal Psychology 2nd CDN edition Chapter 10


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH257
Professor
Uzma Rehman

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Sexual Disorders and Gender Identity Disorder
-current view: all normality is subjective; usu. accepted unless assoc’d w/ impaired functioning
-paraphilia: arousal occurs in context of inappropriate objects or individuals; abnormal arousal
What is Normal?
-sexual risks higher in university students; eg. unprotected sex; oral contraceptive use most common
Gender Differences
-common: men masturbate more, endorse sexual fantasies, fantasize more, permit casual sex
-women: report passionate/romantic feelings as integral to sexuality; men: power, aggression
Cultural Differences
-what’s normal sexual behavior in one culture isn’t necc. normal in others
The Development of Sexual Orientation
-homosexuality: runs in families; diff. exposure to hormones in early life; diff. brain structure
-multiple genes create vulnerability, interact w/ environment to affect brain structure, function
-boys w/ boy-typical behaviours find girls exotic; boys w/ girl-typical behaviours find boys exotic
Gender Identity Disorder
-if person’s physical gender is inconsistent w/ sense of identity; feel trapped in body of wrong sex
-not sexual arousal, or just acting effeminate; GID rare: 1/24000-1/150000 in certain countries
Causes
-not much spec. bio-contribution; maybe: diff. levels of testosterone/estrogen at critical dev. Periods
-firms up b/w 18mos-3yrs; fixed afterwards;influence: excessive attention/physical contact w/ mother
Treatment
-most common: sex reassignment surgery; alter physical anatomy to be consistent w/ identity
-sex reassignment surgery: to qualify: must live in opposite sex role for 1-2 yrs
-must be financially, socially, and psychologically stable; post surgery; 2% commit suicide
-treatment of intersexuality: aka hermaphrodites; usu. gender reassignment; possible psych treatment
-psychosocial treatment: attempt to change gender identity itself; usu. if in great psych distress pre-op
-get them to imagine self as actual sex, alter patterns of sexual arousal to fit homo/heterosexual lifestyle
-Zucker: w/o treatment, children ostracized -> pain/suffering; thus, treat at childhood; easier to resolve
Sexual Dysfunctions: Clinical Descriptions
-occurs in both homo- & heterosexuals; can be either lifelong or acquired, generalized or situational
-28% of CDN women, 18% of CDN men experience sexual dysfunction
Sexual Desire Disorders
-hypoactive SDD: little or no interest in any type of sexual activity; orig. thought due to marital difficulty
-rarely have sexual fantasies, seldom masturbate, attempt intercourse once a month or less
-sexual aversion disorder: thought of sex/brief casual touch-> fear, panic, disgust; issue: panic disorder
-eg. sexual acts -> traumatic images/memories sim. To PTSD (10% of men w/ Sexual aversion have panic)
Sexual Arousal Disorders
-males: erectile disorder; women: sexual arousal disorder; problem isn’t desire, but getting aroused
-eg. men: difficulty maintaining erection; women: can’t achieve/maintain adequate lubrication
-women: can compensate via commercial lubricant; men: rapid ^ w/aging (normally, 7% of men)
-for most healthy relationships: occasional/partial sexual dysfunctions easily accommodated
Orgasm Disorders
-inhibited orgasm: usu. women; low in men; usu. female orgasmic disorder (25% women, 5% men)
-but: ~50% of women don’t achieve orgasm w/ every sexual encounter
-premature ejaculation: ejaculation before man or partner want to; usu. w/n 1-2 minutes of penetration
-perception of lack of control over orgasm may be main psychological determinant
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