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Psych 257 Chap 12 Psych 257 Psychopathology Barlow et Al: Abnormal Psychology 2nd CDN edition Chapter 12

Course Code
Uzma Rehman

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Personality Disorders
-enduring patterns of perceiving, relating to, and thinking about env. And onself
-exhibited in a wide range of social/personal contexts; inflexible, maladaptive
->significant functional impairment/subjective distress
An Overview
-PDs are chronic, pervade all aspects of person’s life; may distress affected person or relative, friend etc.
-PDS are in Axis II: traits more ingrained/inflexible; less likely to be successfully modified
Categorical and Dimensional Models
-difficulty in degree: extreme versions of problems many people experience on temp. basis
-diff. dimensions not categories: (like using cms and inches (dim) not ‘tall, short’ for height (cat))
-PDS=extremes on one+ personality dimensions; due to DSM, people end up viewed as categories
-thus DSM needs dimensional model; idea for ‘five-factor’ model of personality; help distinguish PDS
-i)extraversion; ii)agreeableness; iii) conscientiousness; iv)neuroticism; v) openness to experience
Personality Disorder Clusters
-PDs into 3 groups, ‘clusters; A: odd, eccentric; B: dramatic, emotional, erratic; C: anxious, fearful
Statistics and Development
-US studies: PDs in 0.5%-2.5% of gen. pop.; 10-30% in inpatient setting; 2-10% in outpatient
-rare(1%): schizoid, narcissistic, avoidant PDs
-Less rare:(1-4%): paranoid, schizotypal histrionic, dependent, OCD PDs
-usu. start in childhood; maladaptive characteristics develop into maladaptive behaviours in adulthood
Gender Differences
-BPD: ~75% female; Histrionic, and dependent PDs are equal; poss. Disparity due to clinician/criteria bias
-ex. More likely to diagnose a female than a male; ex. Histrionic: symptoms more frequent in females
-people tend to be diagnosed w/ >1 PD; maybe need to rethink categories
Specific Personality Disorders
-10 PDS in DSM-IV-TR; some categories being considered for inclusion as well
Cluster A Disorders
Paranoid Personality Disorder
-excessively mistrustful and suspicious of other w/o justification; assume others out to get them
-CD: defining characteristic: pervasive unjustified distrust; in situations others see as unfounded
-hostile to others, tense, sensitive to criticism, high need for autonomy; sim. To schiz/delusional PDs
-causes: low evidence for bio/psych. Contribution; but more likely to have PPD if have schiz. Relative
-maybe just indiv’s thoughts, have bad assumptions of people; or cultural aspect
-treatment: need to develop atmosphere of trust; use CT to counter mistaken assumptions
-only 11% of therapists who treat PPD thought indiv’s continue therapy long enough to be helped
Schizoid Personality Disorder
-pattern of detachment from social relationships; low range of emotions in interpersonal associations
-schizoid: term for people w/ tendency to turn inward; away from outside world
-CD: don’t desire/enjoy closeness w/ others; not affected by praise/criticism; -> poss. Homelessness
-see self as observers; sim. to PPD in social deficiencies; share social isolation, poor rapport, low affect
-causes and treatment: little research on gen, neurobio, psychosocial factors
-resembles autism in preference for social isolation;
-maybe sim. Bio dysfunction + early learning problems w/ interpersonal relationships -> SPD
-treatment is rarely requested; usu. start by pointing out value of social relationships; learn empathy
-treat w/ role-playing helping patient to establish/maintain relationships; though low outcome research
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