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Lecture

Psych 257 Chap 14 Psych 257 Psychopathology Barlow et Al: Abnormal Psychology 2nd CDN edition Chapter 14


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH257
Professor
Uzma Rehman

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Developmental Disorders
-usu. disorders start as kid w/ full symptom later; DDs: show clinically significant symptoms in childhood
Perspectives
-usu. child develops 1 skill before next; thus: any disruption early -> disrupt development later on
-knowing what process is disrupted -> better intervention strategies
-changes at bio/psychosocial level -> reduced impact of disorder; despite disorder having large bio base
-knowledge of normal development needed in order to distinguish b/w normal and disordered
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
-common; show pattern of inattention, hyperactivity or impulsitivity -> disrupt academics & social skills Clinical
Description
-difficulty staying on task/ w/ attention; usu -> unfinished tasks, seem not to be listening,
-also -> motor hyperactivity, impulsive, shout out etc.; consistent across cultural groups
-> poor academics, more dangerous behavior, causes: attn/impulsive problems or brain impairment
-> unpopular, rejected by peers; usu. directly related to impulsivity, inattention-> hard to make friends
Statistics
-6% of school-aged kids; symptoms must be present before age 7; usu. more boys (4:1)
-symptoms start ~ 4 yrs; 68% have problems through adulthood; (ex. Crashes, speeding)
-usu. more diagnosed in NA (overdiagnosis?); but now other countries showing ^ rates (^ pervasiveness)
-comorbid w/ hostile/disruptive behavior, learning problems ; ^ risk for antisocial problems w/ boys
Causes
-^ chance if in family; multiple genes (ex. Dopamine: D4, transporter, & D5 genes),
-also assoc’d w/ brain damage, not major but ex. Volume of brain is smaller w/ ADHD;
-poss. Toxins (ex. Allergens) but little evidence; more evidence of prenatal smoking and adhd
-negative response by parent/teacher (sit still, behave, etc..) may -> low self esteem, less friends
Treatment
-biological intervention: reduce impulsivity/hyperactivity, ^ attn, stimulant meds used
-ex. Methylphenidate, d-amphetamine; 70% success w/ reduce hyperactivity & ^ attn, ^ focus
-antidepressants show ^ compliance and less negative behaviours but don’t improve learning/academics
-issue: drug abuse (methylphenidate -> elation, reduce fatigue), ^ use over the years (84% prescribed)
-some don’t respond to meds, and most who do don’t show ^ in academics/social skills
-psychosocial treatments: ^ academics, reduce disruptiviy, ^ social skills, but can’t predict who’ll work
-Combo of both: controversy over effectiveness of meds, intensive behavioural treatment and combo
Learning Disorders
-disorder in reading, math, or written expression; performance below expectations of age, IQ, education
Clinical Description
-reading disorder: discrepancy of achievement vs. avg skills at that age; not caused by sensory difficulty
-others: mathematics disorder or disorder of written expression: below expected -> disrupt daily activity
Statistics
-5-10%, frequency of diagnosis ^ w/ wealthier areas; 12% of schools have learning disorder
-6% of pop. Have math disorder; reading disorder equal among boys/girls
-> diff outcomes, ex. 32% of learning disorders drop out, low employment rate (60-70%), ^ risk of drugs
-can still succeed in college but w/ tutors, other supports; but experiences usu. negative, lasting effects
-some verbal/communication disorders assoc’d w/ learning disorders; ex. Stuttering, selective mutism
Causes
-genetic: ^ family risk of reading disorders; almost 100% chance of reading disorders if identical twins
-linked w/ multiple genes; but also some brain damage; Structural/functional difficulties
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