Psych 257 Chap 15 Psych 257 Psychopathology Barlow et Al: Abnormal Psychology 2nd CDN edition Chapter 15

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Published on 16 Oct 2011
School
University of Waterloo
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH257
Professor
Cognitive Disorders
-neurons don’t regenerate if damaged/die, -> damage accumulates, affects cognitive process, ex. Learning
Perspectives
-CogD’s develop later in life (unlike Developmental disorders that develop at birth);
-predominant feature is impairment of cognitive abilities: ex. Memory, attn, perception, thinking
-> profound changes in behavior, personality (ex. Anxiety/depression in dementia); families/friends also affected
Delirium
-impaired consciousness/cognition; usu. from hours-days; look confused, disoriented, can’t focus/sustain attn
Clinical Description and Statistics
-10-30% of people in emergency rooms; usu. older adults, cancer, AIDS patients;
-link’d w/: intoxication, withdrawal, infections, head injury, improper meds (warning for elderly)
-criteria: disturbance of consciousness (reduced awareness); + change in memory, language over short time
- occurs during course of dementia (44% of dementia); usu. reversed w/ treatment
-can infect older people easier (ex. w/ mild infections); multiple hospital room changes can also affect
Treatment
-quick, in-hospital recovery assoc’d w/ ^ long-term outcomes; psychosocial interventions can help
-ex. Reassure person I order to ease anxiety, use family photos, -> less institutionalization w/ elderly
-haloperidol/antipsych meds used to treat delirium from withdrawal of alcohol, acute delirium
Prevention
-proper medical care for illness/therapeutic drug monitoring best for prevention;
-for delirium in surgical patients: use broad spectrum: education, support, reorientation interventions etc.
Dementia
-gradual deterioration of brain functioning; affects judgment, memory, language, other cognitive processes
-caused by drug abuse, medical conditions, infection, depression, brain trauma, alzheimers, stroke
Clinical Descriptions and Statistics
-diff symptoms depending on cause; ex. Start w/ memory impairment (can’t register ongoing events)
-agnosia: can’t recognize/name objects; facial agnosia: can’t remember familiar faces;
-> emotional changes, delusions, depression, agitation, apathy; occur at any age; usu. Alzheimer’s = >45 yrs
-2% of 65-74 yrs, 10% of 75-84, 30% of 85<; but varying prevalence rates among studies, due to survival rates
-usu. greater risk w/ women (may be due to women live longer); high medical costs; 5 types of dementia
Dementia of the Alzheimer’s Type
-CD: gradual growth of multiple cognitive deficits (memory, orientation etc.); can’t integrate new info
-> less interest; also show aphasia(language difficulty), apraxia(motor issues), agnosia
-stats: autopsy for definite diagnosis, but usu. 70-90% accuracy; usu. use mini mental state exam to test
-slow cognitive deterioration in early/late; rapid in middle stage; avg. survival is <8 yrs
-prevalence w/ less educated, thus alzhiemer’s has earlier onset; ex. Due to less synapses creation
-diff’s in race may be due to diff’s in treatment seeking
Vascular Dementia
-CD: progressive brain disorder, due to brain vessels blocked, can’t carry oxygen
-show some non-alzheimer’s neurological signs: ex. Abnormal walking, weak limbs
-stats: higher risk (4.7:3.8) men than women; usu. more sudden onset (ex. Stroke); sim. outcome
Dementia Due to Other General Medical Conditions
-CD: ex. Dementia due to: HIV, head trauma, parkinsons, huntingtons, picks, creutzfeldt-jakob disease
-HIV: impairment due to HIV itself; -> cognitive slowness, impaired attn, clumsiness, social withdrawal
-more susceptible in later stages; less % of people than alzheimer’s/vascular; termed ‘subcortical dementia’
-huntington’s/parkinson’s dementia -> sim. Pattern of subcortical dementia;
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Document Summary

Neurons don"t regenerate if damaged/die, -> damage accumulates, affects cognitive process, ex. Cogd"s develop later in life (unlike developmental disorders that develop at birth); Predominant feature is impairment of cognitive abilities: ex. Impaired consciousness/cognition; usu. from hours-days; look confused, disoriented, can"t focus/sustain attn. 10-30% of people in emergency rooms; usu. older adults, cancer, aids patients; Link"d w/: intoxication, withdrawal, infections, head injury, improper meds (warning for elderly) Criteria: disturbance of consciousness (reduced awareness); + change in memory, language over short time. Occurs during course of dementia (44% of dementia); usu. reversed w/ treatment. Can infect older people easier (ex. w/ mild infections); multiple hospital room changes can also affect. Quick, in-hospital recovery assoc"d w/ ^ long-term outcomes; psychosocial interventions can help. Reassure person i order to ease anxiety, use family photos, -> less institutionalization w/ elderly. Haloperidol/antipsych meds used to treat delirium from withdrawal of alcohol, acute delirium. Proper medical care for illness/therapeutic drug monitoring best for prevention;

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