PSYCH261 Lecture Notes - Multipolar Neuron, Peripheral Nervous System, Unipolar Neuron

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STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS OF CELLS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
Movement and behavior- primary function of the nervous system
Sensory neurons a neuron that detects changes in the external or internal environment and
sends information about these changes to the central nervous system
o Information in the form of light, sound waves, odors, tastes, or contact with object is
gathered from the environment by these specialized cells
Motor neuron movements accomplished by the contraction of muscles are controlled by
these neurons
o Also controls the secretion of the gland
Interneuron A neuron located entirely within the central nervous system
Local interneurons form circuits with nearby neurons and analyze small pieces of information.
Relay interneurons connect circuits of local interneurons in one region of the brain with those
in other regions
100 billion of neurons - estimated number of neurons in the brain
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS) consist of the parts that are encased by the bones of the
skull and spinal column: the brain and the spinal cord
PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (PNS) - consist of the nerves and most of the sensory organs
CELLS OF THE ENRVOUS SYSTEM
Neurons nerve cell; most important cells of the nervous system; the information processing
and the information-transmitting element of the nervous system.
o BASIC STRUCTURE OF NEURONS
Cell body or soma contains the nucleus and much of the machinery that
provides for the life processes of the cell
Dendrites grk: tree; Dendrites serve as an important recipient of these
messages as the neurons converse to each other
the messages that pass from neuron to neuron are transmitted across
the synapse a junction between the terminal buttons of an axon and a
membrane of another neuron ; the messages that pass from neuron to
neuron are transmitted here
Axon - a long slender tube covered by a myelin sheath; it carries information
from the cell body to the terminal buttons
Action potential the basic message that is being carried by an axon
o A brief electrical/ chemical event that starts at the end of the
axon next to the cell body and travels toward the terminal
buttons. *full strength action potential
Multipolar neuron - a neuron with one axon and many dendrites
attached to its soma
Bipolar neuron give rise to one axon and one dendritic tree, at
opposite ends of the soma.
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