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Lecture

PSYCH261 Lecture Notes - Nocturnal Enuresis, Retinal Ganglion Cell, Superior Colliculus


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH261
Professor
Deltcho Valtchanov

Page:
of 11
Sleep and Biological Rhythms
Chapter 9
Stages of Sleep
Awake
Alpha Activity – smooth 8-12 Hz
(relaxed)
Beta Activity – irregular 13-20 Hz
(arousal)
Stage 1
Theta Activity – 3.5-7.5 Hz activity
Stage 2
Sleep Spindle – short bursts of 12-14
Hz
K Complex – sudden sharp waveforms
Stage 3
Delta Activity – less than 4 Hz (20-
50%)
Stage 4
Delta Activity – more than 50%
REM
Theta and Beta Activity
Stages of Sleep
Roughly 90 minute cycle between
REM and Non-REM sleep
REM Sleep and Dreaming
Desynchronised EEG, some theta,
rapid eye movements
Body largely paralysed
Sleep is not a state of
unconsciousness.
Mental activity may occur during
both REM and slow-wave sleep.
Dreaming has been shown to
invoke decreased frontal and
increased occipital blood flow
Disorganised thematically and brilliant
imagery respectively
REM Sleep and Dreaming
Interpreting retinal blood vessels
Symbolic fulfillment of unconscious
wishes/working through repressed
ideation – manifest and latent
contents
A-Ha! phenomenon?
Jungian archetypes?
Sleep Disorders
Insomnia
Sleep onset insomnia
Sleep maintenance insomnia
Sleep Apnea – cessation of breathing
while sleeping.
Sleep Disorders
Narcolepsy
Irresistible periods of sleep.
Cataplexy
Complete paralysis during waking
(sometimes referred to as “drop
seizures”).
Sleep Paralysis
Paralysis just prior to sleep or upon
waking.
Hypnagogic Hallucinations
Vivid dreams just prior to sleep.
Hereditary component involving
chromosome 6
Narcolepsy
Cataplectic seizures can be triggered by extreme
events.