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Psych 261 Chapter 8 Psych 261 Physiological Psychology Kalat: Biological Psychology 10th Edition Chapter 8

Course Code
James Danckert

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Psych 261 Chapter 8
Module 8.1
The Control of Movement
-Brain; controls muscles->action
Muscles and Their movements
-vertebrate muscles; smooth: control digestive etc. systems
-skeletal (aka striated); control movement in relation to environment; cardiac: for heart
-each muscle comprised of fibres, connected to axons
-neuromuscular junction:synapse b/w motor neuron axon and muscle fiber
-antagonistic muscles: opposing sets; eg. flexor (hand->shoulder); & extensor (straightens arm
-acetylcholine: released at n.m. junction -> contraction; deficits -> impaired movement
-myasthenia gravis: immune system makes antibodies; attacks acetylcholine @ n.m junction
Fast and Slow muscles
-fast-twitch: fast contraction, rapid fatigue; anaerobic; uses fatty acids
-slow-twitch: slow contractions, no fatigue; aerobic (use oxygen); uses glucose
-prolonged exercise -> switch from slow to fast-twitch muscles
-diff % of fast and slow twitch fibres; depends on genetics/training
Muscle control by proprioceptors
-proprioceptor: detects position (movement of body parts); send messages to brain
-eg. muscle spindle: assoc’d w/ stretch reflex; detect stretch->opposite contraction
-eg. golgi tendon organs: respond to ^ muscle tension; stop excessive vigorous contraction
Units of Movement
-eg. speaking, walking; depends on diff. kinds of control by NS
Voluntary and Involuntary Movements
-reflexes: involuntary: insensitive to motivations; voluntary actions: sometimes inhibit involuntary
Movements varying in sensitivity to feedback
-ballistic movement; executed at once, can’t be altered (eg. reflexes)
-usu. other movements to feedback (examination) and correction
Sequences of behaviours
-central pattern generators: neural mechanisms in spinal cord -> rhythmic patterns of motor output
-eg. birds: wing-flapping; fish-fin movements
-motor program: fixed seuquence of movement; eg yawning, specific facial expressions
Module 8.2
Brain mechanisms of movement
-goal of understanding brain & movement; eg. help people w/ movement impairment
The cerebral cortex
-primary motor cortex stimulation -> movements; esp. for complex actions (talking, writing)
-different areas of PMC control diff. body areas, more in face
-PMC active when people ‘intend to do something’ not just during action
Areas near the Primary Motor Cortex
-also contribute to movement; eg. posterior parietal cortex: track body position relative to world
-PPC damage -> can’t convert perceptions to actions; PPC: also important for planning movements
-prefrontal cortex: responds to signals (light/noise) for moves; plan move based on probable outcome
-premotor cortex: prepping for movement; gets info. About target of movement & current body position
-supplementary motor cortex: planning/organizing rapid sequence of movement in specific order
-activation of SMC -> urge to move; strong activation -> movement
Mirror Neurons
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